Advertisement

Child Indicators Research

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 111–131 | Cite as

The Short Attachment to Pets Scale (SAPS) for Children and Young People: Development, Psychometric Qualities and Demographic and Health Associations

  • Ferran Marsa-Sambola
  • Janine Muldoon
  • Joanne Williams
  • Alistair Lawrence
  • Melanie Connor
  • Candace Currie
Article

Abstract

This study describes the development of the SAPS and investigates its reliability and validity within the context of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey (HBSC) which gathered data on representative samples of school pupils aged 11, 13 and 15 in Scotland and England. In the development of SAPS, following a comprehensive review of the literature, two small-scale empirical studies were carried out (one qualitative and one quantitative). Regarding the validation process, the reliability and validity of the SAPS was assessed in a sub-sample (n = 7159) of pupils who completed the HBSC survey and were identified as owning pets. Factor analysis resulted in a one-factor solution (explaining 67.78 % of the variance); Cronbach’s alpha for the scale was 0.894. The item-total correlation ranged from 0.368 to 0.784. A linear model showed that attachment to pets was associated with age (being 11 or 13 years old), being a girl, white ethnicity, and considering a pet as one’s own. SAPS scores were also positively associated with quality of life. The total variance in SAPS explained by these variables was 15.7 %. Effect sizes of associations were medium (age, considering a pet as one’s own) and small (ethnicity, age, gender, quality of life). The study concludes that SAPS is a coherent and psychometrically sound measure. It is associated with a range of demographic variables and quality of life, which confirms its utility as a new succinct measure of children’s and young people’s attachment to pets for use in health and social science research.

Keywords

Attachment Pets Young people Children Health HBSC 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The findings presented belong to “An investigation of 1317 year olds’ attitudes and behaviour to animals and development and testing of interventions to promote the concept of Duty of Care”(SMDO-ZGLD15) which was funded by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). The national HBSC teams in England and Scotland are acknowledged as is the International HBSC Study (Dorothy Currie).

Competing interests

The authors declare not competing interests.

References

  1. Ainsworth, S. (1973). The development of infant-mother attachment. In B. Cardwell & H. Ricciuti (Eds.), Review of child development research (Vol. 3, pp. 1–94). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (2000). Attitudes and the attitude behaviour relation: Reasoned and automatic processes. In W. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Eds.), European review of social psychology. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. Albert, A., & Bulcroft, K. (1988). Pets, families, and the life course. Journal of Marriage and Family, 50, 543–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Fayez, G., Awadalla, A., Templer, D. I., & Arikawa, H. (2003). Companion animal attitude and its family pattern in Kuwait. Society & Animals, 11(1), 17–28. doi: 10.1163/156853003321618819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen, K., Blascovich, J., & Mendes, W. B. (2002). Cardiovascular reactivity and the presence of pets, friends, and spouses: the truth about cats and dogs. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64(5), 727–739. doi: 10.1097/01.Psy.0000024236.11538.41.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, W. P., Reid, C. M., & Jennings, G. L. (1992). Pet ownership and risk-factors for cardiovascular-disease. Medical Journal of Australia, 157(5), 298–301.Google Scholar
  7. Bamberg, S., & Moser, G. (2007). Twenty years after Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera: a new meta-analysis of psycho-social determinants of pro-environmental behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27(1), 14–25. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2006.12.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bardill, N., & Hutchinson, S. (1997). Animal-assisted therapy with hospitalized adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 10(1), 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Batista-Foguet, J. M., Fortiana, J., Currie, C., & Villalbii, J. R. (2004). Socio-economic indexes in surveys for comparisons between countries. Social Indicators Research, 67(3), 315–332. doi: 10.1023/B:Soci.0000032341.14612.B8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baxter Powellab, R., Sternc, M. J., Krohnd, B. D., & Ardoine, N. (2011). Development and validation of scales to measure environmental responsibility, character development, and attitudes toward school. Environmental Education Research, 17(1), 91–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beck, L., & Madresh, E. A. (2008). Romantic partners and four-legged friends: an extension of attachment theory to relationships with pets. ANTHROZOÖS, 21(1), 43–56. doi: 10.2752/089279308x274056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bjerke, T., Kaltenborn, B. P., & Ødegårdstuen, T. S. (2001). Animal-related activities and appreciation of animals among children and adolescents. ANTHROZOOS, 14(2), 86–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  14. Bowlby, J. (2008). A secure base: Parent–child attachment and healthy human development: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  15. Brooks, F., Magnusson, J., Klemera, E., Spencer, N., & Morgan, A. (2011). HBSC England National Report: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC): World Health Organization Collaborative Cross National Study: University of Hertfordshire.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, S. E. (2003). Ethnic variations in pet attachment among students at an American school of veterinary medicine. Society & Animals, 11(1), 101–102. doi: 10.1163/156853003321618873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Budge, R. C., Spicer, J., Jones, B., & George, R. S. (1998). Health correlates of compatibility and attachment in human-companion animal relationships. Society & Animals, 6(3), 219–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cantril, H. (1965). The pattern of human concern. USA: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Carstairs, V., & Morris, R. (1990). Deprivation and health in Scotland. Health Bulletin, 48(4), 162–175.Google Scholar
  20. Case, A., & Paxson, C. (2002). Parental behavior and child health. Health Affairs, 21(2), 164–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clarke, A., Friede, T., Putz, R., Ashdown, J., Martin, S., Blake, A., et al. (2011). Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): validated for teenage school students in England and Scotland. A mixed methods assessment. BMC Public Health, 11, 487. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Covert, A. M., Whiren, A. P., Keith, J., & Nelson, C. (1985). Pets, early adolescents, and families. Marriage & Family Review, 8(3), 95–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crawford, E. K., Worsham, N. L., & Swinehart, E. R. (2006). Benefits derived from companion animals, and the use of the term “attachment”. ANTHROZOÖS, 19(2), 98–112. doi: 10.2752/089279306785593757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Currie, C., Molcho, M., Boyce, W., Holstein, B., Torsheim, T., & Richter, M. (2008). Researching health inequalities in adolescents: the development of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) family affluence scale. Social Science & Medicine, 66(6), 1429–1436. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.11.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Currie, C., Griebler, R., Inchley, J., Theunissen, A., Molcho, M., Samdal, O., Dur, W. (2010). Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study Protocol: Background, Methodology and Mandatory items for the 2009/10 Survey. In. Edinburgh: CARHU & Vienna.Google Scholar
  26. Currie, C., Levin, K., Kirby, J., Currie, D., van der Sluijs, W., & Inchley, J. (2011). HBSC Scotland National Report: University of St Andrews.Google Scholar
  27. Currie, C., Zanotti, C., Morgan, A., Currie, D., De Looze, M. E., Roberts, C., et al. (2012). Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. HBSC international report from the 2009/2010 Survey. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents No. 6. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.Google Scholar
  28. Cusack, O. (1988). Pets and mental health. New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  29. Davis, J. H., & Juhasz, A. M. (1985). The preadolescent pet bond and psychological development. Marriage and Family Review, 8, 79–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. DEFRA. (2011). Rural/ Urban classification. https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/rural–urban-definition. Accessed 04/01/2014.
  31. Dowd, J. B. (2007). Early childhood origins of the income/health gradient: the role of maternal health behaviors. Social Science and Medicine, 65(6), 1202–1213. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.05.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Esposito, L., McCune, S., Griffin, J. A., & Maholmes, V. (2011). Directions in human–animal interaction research: child development, health, and therapeutic interventions. Child Developmental Perspectives, 5(3), 205–211. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00175.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Friedmann, E., Katcher, A. H., Lynch, J. J., & Thomas, S. A. (1980). Animal companions and one-year survival of patients after discharge from a coronary-care unit. Public Health Reports, 95(4), 307–312.Google Scholar
  34. Ganster, D., & Voith, V. L. (1983). Attitudes of cat owners toward cats. Feline Practice, 13, 21–29.Google Scholar
  35. Geisler, A. M. (2004). Companion animals in palliative care: stories from the bedside. The American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care, 21(4), 285–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gilbey, A., McNicholas, J., & Collis, G. M. (2007). A longitudinal test of the belief that companion animal ownership can help reduce loneliness. ANTHROZOÖS, 20(4), 345–353. doi: 10.2752/089279307x245473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hall, M. J., Ng, A., Ursano, R. J., Holloway, H., Fullerton, C., & Casper, J. (2004). Psychological impact of the animal-human bond in disaster preparedness and response. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 10(6), 368–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Headey, B. (1999). Health benefits and health cost savings due to pets: preliminary estimates from an Australian national survey. Social Indicators Research, 47(2), 233–243. doi: 10.1023/A:1006892908532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Headey, B. (2003). Pet ownership: good for health? Medical Journal of Australia, 179(9), 460–461.Google Scholar
  40. Headey, B., & Grabka, M. (2007). Pets and human health in Germany and Australia: National longitudinal results. Social Indicators Research, 80(2), 297–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Herzog, H. (2010). Some we love, some we hate, some we eat: Why it’s so hard to think straight about animals. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  42. Herzog, H. (2011). The impact of pets on human health and psychological well-being: facto, fiction, or hypothesis? Current Directions Psychological Science, 20, 236–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Holcomb, R., Williams, R. C., & Richards, P. S. (1985). The elements of attachment: relationship maintainance and intimacy. Journal of Delta Society, 9, 28–34.Google Scholar
  44. Johnson, T. P., Garrity, T. F., & Stallones, L. (1992). Psychometric evaluation of the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale (LAPS). ANTHROZOÖS, 5(3), 160–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kafer, R., Lago, D., Wamboldt, P., & Harrington, F. (1995). The Pet Relationship Scale: replication of psychometric properties in random samples and association with attitudes toward wild animals. ANTHROZOÖS, 5, 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kellert, S. (1985). Effects of having pets at home on children’s attitudes toward popular and unpopular animals. Journal of Environmental Education, 3, 29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kellert, S., & Berry, J. (1987). Attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife as affected by gender. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 15(3), 336–371.Google Scholar
  48. Kerns, K. A., Tomich, P. L., Aspelmeier, J. E., & Contreras, J. M. (2000). Attachment-based assessments of parent–child relationships in middle childhood. Developmental Psychology, 36(5), 614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kidd, A. H., & Kidd, R. M. (1980). Personality characteristics and preferences in pet ownership. Psychological Reports, 46, 939–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kidd, A. H., & Kidd, R. M. (1990). Factors in children’s attitudes toward pets. Psychological Reports, 66(3 Pt 1), 775–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kline, P. (1993). A handbook of psychological testing. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Kruger, K., McCune, S., & Merrill, R. (2012). WALTHMAN pocket book of human-animal interactions. Leicester: Beyond Design Solutions Ltd.Google Scholar
  53. Kurdek, L. A. (2008). Pet dogs as attachment figures. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 25(2), 247–266. doi: 10.1177/0265407507087958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lane, D., McNicholas, J., & Collis, G. M. (1998). Dogs for the disabled: benefits to recipients and welfare of the dog. Applied Animal Behavioural Science, 59(1), 49–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Marsden, P. V., & Wright, J. D. (2010). Handbook of survey research. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.Google Scholar
  56. Martin, F., & Farnum, J. (2002). Animal-assisted therapy for children with pervasive developmental disorders. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 24(6), 657–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McCardle, P., McCune, S., Griffin, J. A., Esposito, L., & Freund, L. S. (2011). Animals in our lives: human-animal interaction in family, community, & therapeutic settings. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  58. McNicholas, J., & Collis, G. M. (1995). The end of a relationship: Coping with pet loss. In I. Robinson (Ed.), The Waltham book of human–animal interaction: Benefits and responsibilities of pet ownership (pp. 127–143). Oxford: Pergamon.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McNicholas, J., & Collis, G. M. (2000). Dogs as catalysts for social interactions: robustness of the effect. British Journal of Psychology, 91(Pt 1), 61–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McNicholas, J., Gilbey, A., Rennie, A., Ahmedzai, S., Dono, J. A., & Ormerod, E. (2005). Pet ownership and human health: a brief review of evidence and issues. British Medical Journal, 331(7527), 1252–1254. doi: 10.1136/bmj.331.7527.1252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Melson, F. (1990). Studying Children’s Attachment to their Pets: A Conceptual and Methodological Review. ANTHROZOÖS, 4(2), 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Melson, G. F., Peet, S. & Sparks, C. (1991). Children’s attachment to their pets: links to socio-emotional development. Children’s Environments Quarterly, 8(2), 55–65. Google Scholar
  63. Miltiades, H., & Shearer, J. (2011). Attachment to Pet Dogs and Depression in Rural Older Adults. ANTHROZOÖS, 24(2), 147–154. doi: 10.2752/175303711x12998632257585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Muldoon, J., & Williams, J. (2010). Developing questions for the HBSC study: Findings from the Defra- funded project ‘Promoting a Duty of Care towards animals among young people’. (pp. 1–9): University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  65. Muldoon, J., Williams, J., Lawrence, L., Lakestani, N., & Currie, C. (2009). Promoting a ‘Duty of Care’ towards animals among children and young people: a literature review and findings from initial research to inform the development of interventions http://www.cahru.org/publications/reports.
  66. Muldoon, J., Williams, J., & Lawrence, A. (2014). Mum cleaned it and I just played with it’: Children’s perceptions of their roles and responsibilities in the care of family pets. Childhood. doi: 10.1177/0907568214524457.Google Scholar
  67. Munsell, K. L., Canfield, M., Templer, D. I., Tangan, K., & Arikawa, H. (2004). Modification of the Pet Attitude Scale. Society & Animals, 12(2), 137–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Murphy, K. R., & Myors, B. (2004). Statistical power analysis: A simple and general model for traditional and modern hypothesis tests (2nd ed.). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  69. Nafstad, P., Magnus, P., Gaarder, P. I., & Jaakkola, J. J. K. (2001). Exposure to pets and atopy-related diseases in the first 4 years of life. Allergy, 56(4), 307–312. doi: 10.1034/j.1398-9995.2001.00881.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nebbe, L. (2001). The elementary school counselor and the HCAB. In P. Salloto (Ed.), Pet Assisted therapy: A loving intervention and a emerging profession: leading to a friendlier, healthier, and more peaceful world. Norton: D.J. Publications.Google Scholar
  71. Nunnaly, J. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  72. O’Haire, M. (2010). Companion animals and human health: Benefits, challenges, and the road ahead. Journal of Veterinary Behavior-Clinical Applications and Research, 5(5), 226–234. doi: 10.1016/j.jveb.2010.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Odendaal, J. S. J., & Meintjes, R. A. (2003). Neurophysiological correlates of affiliative behaviour between humans and dogs. Veterinary Journal, 165(3), 296–301. doi: 10.1016/S1090-0233(02)00237-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ownby, D. R., Johnson, C. C., & Peterson, E. L. (2002). Exposure to dogs and cats in the first year of life and risk of allergic sensitization at 6 to 7 years of age. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(8), 963–972. doi: 10.1001/jama.288.8.963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Parker, G. B., Gayed, A., Owen, C. A., Hyett, M. P., Hilton, T. M., & Heruc, G. A. (2010). Survival following an acute coronary syndrome: a pet theory put to the test. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 121(1), 65–70. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01410.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Poresky, R. H., & Daniels, A. M. (1998). Demographics of pet presence and attachment. ANTHROZOOS, 11(4), 236–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Prato-Previde, E., Fallani, G., & Valsecchi, P. (2006). Gender differences in owners interacting with pet dogs: An observational study. Ethology, 112(1), 64–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0310.2006.01123.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Prokop, P., & Tunnicliffe, S. D. (2010). Effects of having pets at home on children’s attitudes toward popular and unpopular animals. ANTHROZOÖS, 1, 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ravens-Sieberer, U., Erhart, M., Rajmil, L., Herdman, M., Auquier, P., Bruil, J., et al. (2010). Reliability, construct and criterion validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 score: a short measure for children and adolescents’ well-being and health-related quality of life. Quality of Life Research, 19(10), 1487–1500. doi: 10.1007/s11136-010-9706-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Roberts, C., Freeman, J., Samdal, O., Schnohr, C. W., de Looze, M. E., Nic Gabhainn, S., et al. (2009). The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: methodological developments and current tensions. International Journal of Public Health, 54(Suppl 2), 140–150. doi: 10.1007/s00038-009-5405-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rynearson, E. K. (1978). Humans and Pets and Attachment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 133(Dec), 550–555. doi: 10.1192/bjp.133.6.550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Serpell, J. A., & Paul, E. S. (2011). Pets in the family: An evolutionary perspective. In C. Salmon & T. Shackelford (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Family Psychology (pp. 297–309). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Siegel, J. M. (1995). Pet ownership and the importance of pets among adolescents. ANTHROZOÖS, 8(4), 217–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sobo, E. J., Eng, B., & Kassity-Krich, N. (2006). Canine Visitation (Pet) Therapy: Pilot Data on Decreases in Child Pain Perception. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 24(1), 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sprinkle, J. E. (2008). Animals, empathy, and violence: Can animals be used to convey principles of prosocial behavior to children? Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 1, 47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Staats, S., Miller, D., Carnot, M. J., Rada, K., & Turnes, J. (1996). The Miller-Rada Commitment to Pets Scale. ANTHROZOÖS, 9, 88–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Steele, H., Steele, M., & Fonagy, P. (1996). Associations among attachment classifications of mothers, fathers, and their infants. Child Development, 67(2), 541–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stevens, L. T. (1990). Attachment to pets among eighth graders. ANTHROZOÖS, 3, 177–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Straatman, I., Hanson, E. K. S., Endenburg, N., & Mol, J. A. (1997). The influence of a dog on male students during a stressor. ANTHROZOÖS, 10(4), 191–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Streiner, D., & Norman, G. (2003). Measurement Scales: A Practical Guide to their Development and Use. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using Multivariate Statistics (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  92. Templer, D. I., Salter, C. A., Dickey, S., Baldwin, R., & Veleber, D. M. (1981). The construction of a pet attitude scale. Psychological Record, 31, 343–348.Google Scholar
  93. Vanhoutte, B. A., & Jarvis, P. A. (1995). The Role of Pets in Preadolescent Psychosocial Development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 16(3), 463–479. doi: 10.1016/0193-3973(95)90030-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Vidovic, V., Stetic, V., & Bratko, D. (1999). Pet ownership, type of pet and socio-emotional development of school children. ANTHROZOÖS, 12(4), 211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Vittinghoff, E., Shiboski, S., & McCulloch, C. E. (2005). Regression methods in biostatistics: Springer.Google Scholar
  96. Vockell, E., & Hodal, F. (1980). Developing humane attitudes: What does research tell us. Humane Education, 2, 19–21.Google Scholar
  97. Wardle, J., Robb, K., & Johnson, F. (2002). Assessing socioeconomic status in adolescents: the validity of a home affluence scale. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 56(8), 595–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Webb, T. L., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Does changing behavioral intentions engender behaviour change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 132(2), 249–268. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.132.2.249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Weiner, I. B., & Craighead, W. E. (2010). The corsini encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 4): Wiley.Google Scholar
  100. Westgarth, C., Heron, J., Ness, A. R., Bundred, P., Gaskell, R. M., Coyne, K. P., et al. (2010). Family Pet Ownership during Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort and Implications for Public Health Research. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(10), 3704–3729. doi: 10.3390/ijerph7103704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Westgarth, C., Boddy, L. M., Stratton, G., German, A. J., Gaskell, R. M., Coyne, K. P., et al. (2013). Pet ownership, dog types and attachment to pets in 9–10 year old children in Liverpool, UK. BMC Veterinary Research, 9, 102. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Williams, J. M., Muldoon, J., & Lawrence, A. (2010). Children and their pets: Exploring the relationships between pet ownership, pet attitudes, attachment to pets and empathy. Education and Health, 28(1), 12–15.Google Scholar
  103. Wright, J. D., Kritz-Silverstein, D., Morton, D. J., Wingard, D. L., & Barrett-Connor, E. (2007). Pet ownership and blood pressure in old age. Epidemiology, 18(5), 613–618. doi: 10.1097/Ede.0b013e3181271398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zilcha-Mano, S., Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2011). An attachment perspective on human-pet relationships: Conceptualization and assessment of pet attachment orientations. Journal of Research in Personality, 45(4), 345–357. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2011.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ferran Marsa-Sambola
    • 1
  • Janine Muldoon
    • 1
  • Joanne Williams
    • 2
  • Alistair Lawrence
    • 3
  • Melanie Connor
    • 3
  • Candace Currie
    • 1
  1. 1.Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit (CAHRU)University of St AndrewFifeUK
  2. 2.Clinical PsychologyUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghUK
  3. 3.Scotland’s Rural CollegeEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations