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Donor-derived myelodysplastic syndrome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a family with germline GATA2 mutation

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Germline GATA2 heterozygous mutations were identified as complex immunodeficiency and hematological syndromes characterized by cytopenia (monocytes, B-cells, NK-cells), susceptibility to mycobacterium, fungus, or Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection, and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) development. Herein, we report a patient with AML who had a fatal infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) due to impaired immune reconstitution associated with GATA2 mutation. A 15-year-old man was diagnosed with AML with monosomy 7. His family history was negative for immunodeficiency and hematological disorders. He attained complete remission after HSCT from an HLA-identical sister. Post-HSCT examinations performed 15 months later revealed pancytopenia, especially monocytopenia and the absence of B and NK cells, resulting in the occurrence of donor-type MDS. Twenty-one months after HSCT, he developed central nervous system aspergillosis and finally died of the disease. Two months later (24 months after PBSCT), the donor was diagnosed with persistent EBV infection accompanied by MDS with multilineage dysplasia. Genetic analysis of GATA2 revealed a novel heterozygous mutation (c.1023_1026dupCGCC) in both siblings. GATA2 mutations were highly prevalent among adolescent MDS/AML patients with monosomy 7. Therefore, the screening of GATA2 mutations in relatives is necessary when performing HSCT from a relative donor.

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Correspondence to Naoki Sakata.

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Sakata, N., Okano, M., Masako, R. et al. Donor-derived myelodysplastic syndrome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a family with germline GATA2 mutation. Int J Hematol 113, 290–296 (2021).

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