JSH Guideline for Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues: Leukemia: 6. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are monoclonal diseases characterized by abnormal proliferation and apoptosis of hematopoietic cells that are believed to be caused by abnormalities in immature hematopoietic cells . The concept of MDS was first described in the French–American–British (FAB) classification in 1982 , and currently, MDS is classified using the 2001 and 2008 WHO classifications [3, 4]; however, these are used in combination with the FAB classification as well. MDS is characterized by unilineage or multilineage cytopenia, morphological dysplasia, ineffective hematopoiesis, and risk for transformation to acute leukemia, and is considered to be not a single disease but rather a group of syndromes comprising multiple diseases. Therefore, classification into presently defined subtypes alone is insufficient for making clinical decisions. More than half of patients with MDS have cytogenetic abnormalities, and genetic abnormalities in undifferentiated hematopoietic...