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TableĀ 4 Composition of formation water

From: Injection of biosurfactant and chemical surfactant following hot water injection to enhance heavy oil recovery

Component Concentration, kg/m3
Sodium 25.08
Calcium 3.76
Magnesium 0.878
Iron 0.045
Chloride 47.72
Sulfate 0.247
Carbonate 0
Bicarbonate 0.079