Petroleum Science

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 421–430 | Cite as

An alternative treatment process for upgrade of petroleum refinery wastewater using electrocoagulation

  • Dhorgham Skban Ibrahim
  • Mohan Lathalakshmi
  • Appusamy Muthukrishnaraj
  • Natesan Balasubramanian
Article

Abstract

An electrocoagulation treatment process was developed for treatment and upgrade of petroleum refinery effluent (wastewater), instead of the conventional methods, which can consume higher amounts of chemicals and produce larger amounts of sludge. The effect of the operation parameters, such as current density, initial pH, anode material, anode dissolution, energy consumption and electrolysis time, on treatment efficiency was investigated. The experimental results showed that the effluent can be effectively treated under optimal conditions. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of the effluent, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) of the sludge produced, revealed that the unwanted pollutants can be eliminated. The electrocoagulation treatment process was assessed by using the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and the general physicochemical characteristics of wastewater, and the results showed that the electrocoagulation is an efficient process for recycling of petroleum wastewater; it is faster and provides better quality of treated water than the conventional methods.

Key words

COD/TSS reduction electrocoagulation petroleum refinery effluent recycle sludge analysis 

References

  1. Abdelwahab O, Amin N K and El-Ashtoukhy E-S Z. Electrochemical removal of phenol from oil refinery wastewater. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009. 163:711–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balasubramanian N and Srinivasakannan C. Electrocoagulation/electroflotation-fundamentals, present and future perspectives. in: Kuai S and Meng J (Eds.). Electrolysis: Theory, Types and Application. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. 2010. 1–17Google Scholar
  3. Bukhari A A. Investigation of the electro-coagulation treatment process for the removal of total suspended solids and turbidity from municipal wastewater. Bioresour. Technol. 2008. 99: 914–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Canizares P, Martínez F, Jiménez C, Sáez C, et al. Coagulation and electrocoagulation of oil-in-water emulsions. J. Hazard. Mater. 2008. 151: 44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen G. Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment Sep. Purif Technol. 2004. 38: 11–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. COINDS/4/1981-82, Minimal National Standards Oil Refineries, Central Board for the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution New Delhi, India, 1982Google Scholar
  7. Diya’uddeen H, Abdul Aziz A R and Daud W M A W. Oxidative mineralisation of petroleum refinery effluent using Fenton-like process. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 2012. 90: 298–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Diya’uddeen H, Daud W M A W and Abdul Aziz A R. Treatment technologies for petroleum refinery effluents: A review. Proce. Safe. Environ. Protec. 2011. 89: 95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Drouichea N, Aoudja S, Hecini M, et al. Study on the treatment of photovoltaic wastewater using electrocoagulation: Fluoride removal with aluminium electrodes-Characteristics of products. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009. 169: 65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Drouichea N, Ghaffour N, Lounici H, et al. Electrochemical treatment of chemical mechanical polishing wastewater: removal of fluoride-sludge, characteristics-operating cost. Desalination. 2008. 223: 134–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. El-Naas M H. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. Hydrocarb. World. 2010. 5(1): 11–13Google Scholar
  12. El-Naas M H, Al-Zuhair S, Al-Lobaney A, et al. Assessment of electrocoagulation for the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. J. Environ. Manage. 2009. 91: 180–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. IPIECA (International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association). Petroleum refining water/wastewater use and management. Operations Best Practice Series, London, UK. 2010Google Scholar
  14. Khemis M, Tanguy G, Leclerc J P, et al. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of oil suspensions-relation between the rates of electrode reactions and the efficiency of waste removal. Proce. Safe. Environ. Protec. 2005. 83 (B1): 50–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kobya M, Can T and Bayramoglu M. Treatment of textile wastewaters by electrocoagulation using iron and aluminum electrodes. J. Hazard. Mater. 2003. B 100: 163–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lahnsteiner J and Mittal R. Reuse and recycling of secondary effluents in refineries employing advanced multi-barrier systems. Wat. Sci. Tech. 2010. 62(8): 1813–1820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Linares-Hernández I, Barrera-Díaz C, Bilyeu B, et al. A combined electrocoagulation-electrooxidation treatment for industrial wastewater. J. Hazard. Mater. 2010. 175: 688–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Manning F S and Snider E H. Environmental assessment data base for petroleum refining wastewaters and residuals. Technical report data, ADA, Oklahoma. 1983Google Scholar
  19. Martínez-Delgadillo S A, Morales-Mora M A and Barceló-Quintal I D. Electrocoagulation treatment to remove pollutants from petroleum refinery wastewater. Sustain. Environ. Res. 2010. 20(4): 227–231Google Scholar
  20. Meas Y, Ramirez A J, Villalon A M, et al. Industrial wastewaters treated by electrocoagulation. Electrochim. Acta. 2010. 55: 8165–8171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mohan N, Balasubramanian N and Ahmed Basha C. Electrochemical oxidation of textile wastewater and its reuse. J. Hazard. Mater. 2007. 147: 644–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Panizza M and Cerisola G. Applicability of electrochemical methods to carwash wastewaters for reuse. Part 2: Electrocoagulation and anodic oxidation integrated process. J. Electroanal. Chem. 2010. 638: 236–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Prather V. Advanced treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater by autoxidation. Water Pollut. Control Federat. 1970. 42(4): 596–603Google Scholar
  24. Sengil IA and Özacar M. Treatment of dairy wastewaters by electrocoagulation using mild steel electrodes. J. Hazard. Mater. 2006. B 137: 1197–1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Un U T, Koparal A S and Ogutveren U B. Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes. J. Environ. Manage. 2009. 90: 428–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wake H. Oil refineries: a review of their ecological impacts on the aquatic environment. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 2005. 62: 131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yang C L. Electrochemical coagulation for oily water demulsification. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2007. 54: 388–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yavuz Y, Koparal A S and Öğutveren Ü B. Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater by electrochemical methods. Desalination. 2010. 258:201–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© China University of Petroleum (Beijing) and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dhorgham Skban Ibrahim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohan Lathalakshmi
    • 1
  • Appusamy Muthukrishnaraj
    • 1
  • Natesan Balasubramanian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, AC Tech CampusAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Petroleum Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of BaghdadBaghdadIraq

Personalised recommendations