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Luftverschmutzung und Herz-Kreislauf-System

  • T. MünzelEmail author
  • O. Hahad
  • A. Daiber
  • J. Lelieveld
Übersichten

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Die Luftverschmutzung in der Umgebung und in Haushalten ist ein großes Gesundheitsproblem, das weltweit jährlich für mittlerweile mehr als 8 Mio. vermeidbare vorzeitige Todesfälle und innerhalb Europas für knapp 800.000 solche Todesfälle verantwortlich ist.

Fragestellung

Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit den Auswirkungen von Luftverschmutzung auf das Herz-Kreislauf-System.

Material und Methode

Es wurde eine Literaturrecherche epidemiologischer und experimenteller Studien zum Zusammenhang von Luftverschmutzung und Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen durchgeführt.

Ergebnisse

Epidemiologische Studien zeigen, dass Luftverschmutzung durch Feinstaub („particulate matter“, PM2.5 und PM10) mit erhöhter kardiovaskulärer Morbidität und Mortalität assoziiert ist. Hierfür verantwortlich sind hauptsächlich durch Feinstaub ausgelöste oder verschlimmerte Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen, wie koronare Herzerkrankung, Herzinfarkt, Herzinsuffizienz, Schlaganfall, Hypertonie und auch Diabetes. Experimentelle Untersuchungen zeigen, dass Feinstaubpartikel über einen Transitionsprozess in die Blutbahn gelangen und die Bildung reaktiver Sauerstoffspezies in der Gefäßwand stimulieren, wodurch atherosklerotische Veränderungen begünstigt werden und so das kardiovaskuläre Risiko steigt.

Schlussfolgerungen

Insbesondere aufgrund von neuesten Berechnungen stellt die Luftverschmutzung einen wichtigen Risikofaktor für die Entstehung von Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen dar. Dies macht präventive Maßnahmen, z. B. eine Absenkung der Grenzwerte für Luftschadstoffe, insbesondere für PM2.5 von 25 µg/m3 auf die von der WHO (World Health Organization) empfohlenen 10 µg/m3 erforderlich.

Schlüsselwörter

Luftverschmutzung Feinstaub Kardiovaskuläre Erkrankungen Vorzeitige Mortalität Prävention 

Air pollution and cardiovascular system

Abstract

Background

Air pollution in the environment and in households is a major health problem, accounting for more than 8 million preventable premature deaths globally each year and nearly 800,000 such deaths in Europe.

Objective

This paper deals with the effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system.

Material and methods

A literature review of epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases was carried out.

Results

Epidemiological studies show that airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This is mainly due to fine dust-induced and/or aggravated cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, hypertension and also diabetes. Experimental studies show that particulate matter enters the bloodstream via a transition process and stimulates the formation of reactive oxygen species in the vascular walls, promoting atherosclerotic changes and increasing cardiovascular risk.

Conclusion

Air pollution is an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases, especially as a result of recent calculations. This makes preventive measures necessary, such as a reduction of air pollutant limits, in particular for PM2.5, from 25 μg/m3 to the 10 μg/m3 recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Keywords

Air pollution Particulate matter Cardiovascular diseases Mortality, premature Prevention 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

T. Münzel, O. Hahad, A. Daiber und J. Lelieveld geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Für diesen Beitrag wurden von den Autoren keine Studien an Menschen oder Tieren durchgeführt. Für die aufgeführten Studien gelten die jeweils dort angegebenen ethischen Richtlinien.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zentrum für Kardiologie – Kardiologie IUniversitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität MainzMainzDeutschland
  2. 2.Max-Planck-Institut für ChemieJohannes Gutenberg-Universität MainzMainzDeutschland

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