Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 451–456 | Cite as

Knee cartilage defect: marrow stimulating techniques

  • M. Zain Mirza
  • Richard D. Swenson
  • Scott A. LynchEmail author
Cartilage Repair Techniques in the Knee (A Dhawan, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Cartilage Repair Techniques in the Knee


Painful chondral defects of the knee are very difficult problems. The incidence of these lesions in the general population is not known since there is likely a high rate of asymptomatic lesions. The rate of lesions found during arthroscopic exam is highly variable, with reports ranging from 11 to 72 % Aroen (Aroen Am J Sports Med 32: 211-5, 2004); Curl(Arthroscopy13: 456-60, 1997); Figueroa(Arthroscopy 23(3):312-5, 2007;); Hjelle(Arthroscopy 18: 730-4, 2002). Examples of current attempts at cartilage restoration include marrow stimulating techniques, ostochondral autografts, osteochondral allografts, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation. Current research in marrow stimulating techniques has been focused on enhancing and guiding the biology of microfracture and other traditional techniques. Modern advances in stem cell biology and biotechnology have provided many avenues for exploration. The purpose of this work is to review current techniques in marrow stimulating techniques as it relates to chondral damage of the knee.


Bone marrow stimulation Marrow stimulating techniques Microfracture Platelet-rich plasma Scaffolding Osteochondral lesion 


Compliance with Ethics Guideline

Conflict of Interest

The authors have nothing to disclose.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Zain Mirza
    • 1
  • Richard D. Swenson
    • 1
  • Scott A. Lynch
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Penn State Hershey Bone and Joint InstituteHersheyUSA

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