Depression and Anxiety in Women with Heart Disease
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Depression and anxiety are extremely common conditions but are even more common in persons living with cardiovascular disease. Both conditions occur more frequently in women living with cardiovascular disease compared with men. Studies have demonstrated a link between coronary artery disease and depression, with an increased prevalence of depression in younger women living with CVD. Depression and anxiety are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease and are associated with worse outcomes in those living with cardiovascular disease, particularly women. The purpose of this paper is to review the sex-based epidemiology of depression and anxiety in CVD and their possible mechanisms of impacting CVD risk factors and CVD outcomes in women with CVD.
KeywordsDepression Anxiety Women Cardiovascular disease
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Conflict of Interest
Drs Gulati, Buffomante, and Wenger have no conflicts of interests.
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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.
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