The X-Factor: Global Impact of Women in the Awareness and Management of Coronary Artery Disease

  • Divya GuptaEmail author
  • Sharonne N. Hayes
  • Sandra Lewis
  • Jennifer H. Mieres
  • Leslee Shaw
  • Nanette WengerEmail author
Women + Heart Disease (E Jackson, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Women and Heart Disease


Heart disease is the #1 killer of women and a major contributor to morbidity and disability. This statement cannot be repeated enough and is often neglected. In 2008, there were 9,127,416 cardiovascular deaths in women worldwide, accounting for 33.2 % of all deaths in women. Coronary artery disease (CAD) differs in symptom presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes in women compared to men. We have made great strides in diagnosing and managing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. However, this progress continues to be overshadowed by the improvements made on the understanding and management of CVD in men.


Coronary artery disease CAD Cardiovascular disease CVD Women in cardiology 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Divya Gupta, Jennifer Mieres, Leslee Shaw and Sharonne N. Hayes have no relevant disclosures to report. Nanette Wenger has received research grants and contracts and worked on a trial steering committee/trial data safety and monitoring board for Gilead Science, NHLBI, Pfizer, and Society for Women’s Health Research.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Divya Gupta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sharonne N. Hayes
    • 2
  • Sandra Lewis
    • 3
  • Jennifer H. Mieres
    • 4
  • Leslee Shaw
    • 1
  • Nanette Wenger
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Mayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Northwest Cardiovascular Institute, LLPPortlandUSA
  4. 4.Hofstra North shore LIJ HempsteadUSA

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