Metabolomics for Biomarkers of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Advances and Nutritional Intervention Trends

Abstract

Metabolic characterization of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is crucial for the identification of individuals at risk for developing diabetes and T2DM-related vascular complications as well as for monitoring disease progression. The application of metabolomics to diabetes research may lead to the identification and discovery of diagnostic and prognostic T2DM biomarkers, in addition to elucidating disease pathways. In the present review, we summarize the distinct classes of metabolites that have been proposed as potential biomarkers for progressing stages of T2DM by metabolomic approaches. Several studies have demonstrated that the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids is considerably altered in prediabetes and continue to vary over the course of T2DM progression. The identification of intermediate metabolites involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, lipolysis, and proteolysis have provided evidence of these metabolic dysfunctions. Finally, given the increasing worldwide incidence of T2DM and its related complications, research should focus on the impact of lifestyle factors, particularly diet, at the metabolomic level for better understanding and improved healthcare strategies.

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Acknowledgments

This study was supported by CICYT AGL2009-13906-C02-01 from the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) and PI13/01172 Project, (Plan N de I + D + i 2013-2016) co-funded by ISCII-Subdirección General de Evaluación y Fomento de la Investigación and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER). We also thank the award of 2014SGR1566 from the Generalitat de Catalunya’s Agency AGAUR and the EU Joint Programming Initiative A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life on Biomarkers BioNH-FOODBALL (PCIN-2014-133-MINECO-Spain). M.U.-S. would like to thank the “Ramón y Cajal” program (RYC-2011-09677) from MINECO and the Fondo Social Europeo. EAA would like to thank to CONACYT (México) for the Ph.D. fellowship. ST acknowledges the Juan de la Cierva program (MINECO).

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Cristina Andres-Lacueva, Francisco J Tinahones, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Mireia Urpi-Sarda, Sara Tulipani, and Enrique Almanza-Aguilera have no conflicts of interest.

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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal performed by any of the authors.

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Correspondence to Mireia Urpi-Sarda.

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Urpi-Sarda, M., Almanza-Aguilera, E., Tulipani, S. et al. Metabolomics for Biomarkers of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Advances and Nutritional Intervention Trends. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep 9, 12 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12170-015-0440-y

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Keywords

  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Metabolomics
  • Diabetes research
  • Biomarkers
  • Pathways
  • Progression states
  • Lifestyle factors
  • Diet