Trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils provide 2% to 3% of daily energy in the United States. Evidence from controlled feeding studies indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids produces harmful changes in lipid profiles, systemic inflammation, endothelial function, and possibly other markers of cardiovascular risk. Evidence from prospective observational studies has demonstrated strong positive associations between trans fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease and possibly higher risks of diabetes and obesity. Educating the public about the sources and hazards of trans fats, combined with voluntary use of trans-free alternatives by restaurants and food manufacturers and possibly legislation that limits their use, could avert thousands of coronary heart disease events each year in the United States.
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Willett, W.C., Mozaffarian, D. Trans fats in cardiac and diabetes risk: An overview. Curr Cardio Risk Rep 1, 16–23 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12170-007-0004-x