Skip to main content
Log in

Classification of Tokaj Wines by Ultraviolet–Visible Spectroscopy

  • Published:
Food Analytical Methods Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The suitability of UV–Vis spectrometry was evaluated for the classification of undiluted and diluted Slovak Tokaj wine samples according to style (essences, Tokaj selection, varietal and other wines), grade (quantity of cibebas), and variety (Furmint, Lipovina, and Muškát žltý) using principal component analysis (PCA), variable selection (VS), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), general discriminant analysis (GDA), and support vector machine (SVM). The individual groups of Tokaj wines differed in their production process, the quantity of cibebas used in their production, and the accorded Protected Designation of Origin status, all of which determined their price. In general, it was found that better classification was obtained based on the UV–Vis spectra of the diluted samples, VS was a more suitable algorithm for reducing the number of variables than PCA, and finally, LDA/GDA was preferred over SVM. The best total correct classification (100%) was obtained using diluted wines and VS-GDA method. To achieve this result, 45, 31, and 10 variables were needed for classification by style, grade, and variety, respectively. Thus, UV–Vis spectrometry combined with chemometrics can be widely exploited for quality control and authentication of Tokaj wines because of a relative simplicity, short-time analysis, and without considerable financial expenses.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Aleixandre-Tudo JL, Nieuwoudt H, Olivieri A, Aleixandre JL, du Toit W (2018) Phenolic profiling of grapes, fermenting samples and wines using UV-Visible spectroscopy with chemometrics. Food Control 85:11–22

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Arlot S, Celisse A (2010) A survey of cross-validation procedures for model selection. Statist Surv 4:40–79

  • Ballová Ľ, Eftimová Z, Kurhajec S, Eftimová J (2016) Tokaj wines as source of polyphenols with positive effects to health. ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ ТА ПРАКТИЧНІ АСПЕКТИ ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ ЛІКАРСЬКИХ РОСЛИН. МАТЕРІАЛИ. II Міжнародної науково-практичної internet-конференції. 21–23 березня 2016. Харків .2016. МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОХОРОНИ ЗДОРОВ’Я УКРАЇНИ. Національний фармацевтичний університет

  • Bührle F, Gohl A, Weber F (2017) Impact of xanthylium derivatives on the color of white wine. Molecules 22:1376–1393

    Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Carbajal-Ida D, Maury C, Salas E, Siret R, Mehinagic E (2016) Physico-chemical properties of botrytised Chenin blanc grapes to assess the extent of noble rot. Eur Food Res Technol 242:117–126

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chandra S, Chapman J, Power A, Roberts J, Cozzolino D (2017) Origin and regionality of wines—the role of molecular spectroscopy. Food Anal Methods 10:3947–3955

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Commission Regulation (EU) No 401/2010 of 7 May 2010 amending and correcting Regulation (EC) No 607/2009 laying down certain detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 479/2008 as regards protected designations of origin and geographical indications, traditional terms, labelling and presentation of certain wine sector products. Official J Eur Union OJ L 87, 24(3)2006:2

  • Campos MP, Sousa R, Pereira AC, Reis MS (2017) Advanced predictive methods for wine age prediction: Part II – A comparison study of multiblock regression approaches. Talanta 171:132–142

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cozzolino D (2015) The role of visible and infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics to measure phenolic compounds in grape and wine samples. Molecules 20:726–737

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dankowska A, Kowalewski W (2019) Comparison of different classification methods for analysing fluorescence spectra to characterize type and freshness of olive oils. Eur Food Res Technol 245:745–752

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ferreiro-González M, Ruiz-Rodríguez A, Barbero GF, Ayuso J, Álvarez JA, Palma M, Barroso CG (2019) FT-IR, Vis spectroscopy, color and multivariate analysis for the control of ageing processes in distinctive Spanish wines. Food Chem 277:6–11

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Figueiredo-Gonzalez M, Cancho-Grande B, Simal-Gandara J (2013) Effects on colour and phenolic composition of sugar concentration processes in dried-on- or dried-off-vine grapes and their aged or not natural sweet wines. Trends Food Sci Technol 31:36–54

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Furdíková K, Machyňáková A, Drtilová T, Špánik I (2020) Comparison of different categories of Slovak Tokaj wines in terms of profiles of volatile organic compounds. Molecules 25:669.

  • Hu L, Yin Ch, Ma S, Liu Z (2018) Rapid detection of three quality parameters and classification of wine based on Vis-NIR spectroscopy with wavelength selection by ACO and CARS algorithms. Spectrochim Acta A 205:574–581

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ikram ST, Cherukuri AK (2017) Intrusion detection model using fusion of chi-square feature selection and multi class SVM. J King Saud Univ, Comp & Info Sci 29:462–472

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koreňovská M, Suhaj M (2005) Identification of some Slovakian and European wines origin by the use of factor analysis of elemental data. Eur Food Res Technol 221:550–558

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kovács Z, Dinya Z, Antus S (2004) LC–SSI-MS techniques as efficient tools for characterization of nonvolatile phenolic compounds of a special Hungarian wine. J Chromatogr Sci 42:125–129

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Law No. 313/2009 on viticulture and wine (Zákon o vinohradníctve a vinárstve) of 30 June 2009 on the web:

  • Liu J, Pan TJ, Zhang ZY (2018) Incremental support vector machine combined with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy for rapid discriminant analysis of red wine. J Spectrosc 2018:1–5

    Google Scholar 

  • Mazur M, Husáriková L, Kaliňák M, Valko M (2015) “VINUM REGNUM - REX VINORUM” 1H NMR Spectroscopy study of the Slovak Tokaj wines. Czech Chem Soc Symp Ser 13:103–106

    Google Scholar 

  • Magyar I (2011) Botrytized Wines. Adv Food Nutr Res 63:147–206

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Molla N, Bakardzhiyski I, Manolova Y, Bambalov V, Cozzolino D, Antonov L (2017) The effect of path length on the measurement accuracies of wine chemical parameters by UV, visible, and near-infrared spectroscopy. Food Anal Methods 10:1156–1163

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martelo-Vidal MJ, Domínguez-Agis F, Vázquez M (2013) Ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared spectral analysis and chemometric tools for the discrimination of wines between subzones inside a controlled designation of origin: a case study of Rías Baixas. Aust J Grape Wine R 19:62–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • OIV (2016) Compendium of international methods of wine and must analysis. International Organisation of Vine and Wine, Paris

    Google Scholar 

  • Philippidis A, Poulakis E, Basalekou M, Strataridaki A, Kallithraka S, Velegrakis M (2017) Characterization of Greek wines by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy and statistical multivariate methods. Anal Lett 50:1950–1963

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pour Nikfardjam MS, László G, Dietrich H (2003) Polyphenols and antioxidative capacity in Hungarian Tokaj wine. Mitt Klosterneubur 53:159–165

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pour Nikfardjam MS, László G, Dietrich H (2006) Resveratrol-derivatives and antioxidative capacity in wines made from botrytized grapes. Food Chem 96:74–79

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rendall R, Pereira AC, Reis MS (2017) Advanced predictive methods for wine age prediction: Part I – A comparison study of single-block regression approaches based on variable selection, penalized regression, latent variables and tree-based ensemble methods. Talanta 171:341–350

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sádecká J, Jakubíková M (2020) Varietal classification of white wines by fluorescence spectroscopy. J Food Sci Technol 57:2545–2553

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Sádecká J, Jakubíková M, Májek P (2018) Fluorescence spectroscopy for discrimination of botrytized wines. Food Control 88:75–84

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sen I, Tokatli F (2016) Differentiation of wines with the use of combined data of UV–visible spectra and color characteristics. J Food Compost Anal 45:101–107

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tan J, Li R, Jiang ZT, Zhang Y, Hou YM, Wang YR, Wu X, Gong L (2016) Geographical classification of Chinese Cabernet Sauvignon wines by data fusion of ultraviolet-visible and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopies: the combined use of multiple wavelength differences. Aust J Grape Wine R 22:358–365

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Uríčková V, Sádecká J (2015) Determination of geographical origin of alcoholic beverages using ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectroscopy: a review. Spectrochim Acta A 148:131–137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vabalas A, Gowen E, Poliakoff E, Casson AJ (2019) Machine learning algorithm validation with a limited sample size. PLoS ONE 14(11):e0224365.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Yang J, Sun J, Du L, Chen B, Zhang Z, Shi S, Gong W (2017) Monitoring of paddy rice varieties based on the combination of the laser-induced fluorescence and multivariate analysis. Food Anal Methods 10:2398–2403

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yu J, Wang H, Zhan J, Huang W (2017) Review of recent UV–Vis and infrared spectroscopy researches on wine detection and discrimination. Appl Spectrosc Rev 53:65–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zimdars S, Hitschler J, Schieber A, Weber F (2017) Oxidation of wine polyphenols by secretomes of wild Botrytis cinerea strains from white and red grape varieties and determination of their specific laccase activity. J Agric Food Chem 65:10582–10590

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


This research was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract no. APVV-15–0355. Great thanks to Tokaj wineries Ostrožovič spol. s r.o., Anna Nagyová-Zlatý Strapec and Tokaj & Co., s.r.o. for the cooperation and granting the samples.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michaela Jakubíková.

Ethics declarations

Ethics Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

Conflict of Interest

Jana Sádecká declares that she has no conflict of interest. Michaela Jakubíková declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 434 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sádecká, J., Jakubíková, M. Classification of Tokaj Wines by Ultraviolet–Visible Spectroscopy. Food Anal. Methods 15, 56–66 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: