Rapid Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Apple: Ultrasound-Assisted Solvent Extraction Followed by Microextraction by Packed Sorbent

Abstract

Common procedures for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extraction involve the use of large amount of solvents and a long extraction time. To address these difficulties, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction followed by microextraction by packed sorbent (UAE-MEPS) was investigated as a novel extraction procedure for the recovery of PAHs from apple, a model of solid vegetal food matrix. The most suitable sorbent and the eluting solvent for PAHs recovery through MEPS were determined. The performances of the whole procedure were tested through the determination of linearity, accuracy, and sensitivity after GC-MS analyses. Linearity assays, within 0 to 10 μg/kg in apple (9 points), provided determination coefficients around 0.993 (median value) for all studied PAHs. Repeatability tests (n = 3) and intermediate precision (n = 9) showed relative standard deviation between 1 and 12%. Limits of detection were determined between 0.04 and 0.13 μg/kg wet weight (w.w.) and limits of quantification were between 0.12 and 0.43 μg/kg w.w. These performances allowed the trace level determination of PAHs in apples collected in different crop environments. The proposed UAE-MEPS procedure is rapid and few solvent consuming compared to other conventional techniques for PAHs extraction.

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Fig. 1

Abbreviations

UAE:

Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction

MEPS:

Microextraction by packed sorbent

PAHs:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

MW:

Molecular weight

w.w.:

Wet weight

SLE:

Solid–liquid extraction

SPE:

Solid-phase extraction

PS-DVB:

Polystyrene–divinylbenzene copolymer

MIPs:

Molecular imprinted polymers

PLE:

Pressurized liquid extraction

HS-SPME:

Headspace solid-phase microextraction

GC:

Gas chromatography

PEP:

Polar-enhanced polymer

MS:

Mass spectrometry

SIM:

Single ion monitoring

RT:

Room temperature

LOD:

Limit of detection

LOQ:

Limit of quantification

PGC:

Porous graphitic carbon

RSD:

Relative standard deviation

ACY:

Acenaphthylene

ACP:

Acenaphthene

FLR:

Fluorene

PHE:

Phenanthrene

ANT:

Anthracene

FA:

Fluoranthene

PYR:

Pyrene

BaA:

Benz[a]anthracene

CHR:

Chrysene

BbF:

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

BaP:

Benzo[a]pyrene

IP:

Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

DBahA:

Dibenz[ah]anthracene

BghiP:

Benzo[ghi]perylene

d.w.:

Dry weight

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Funding

Alice Paris was supported by a PhD scholarship from the Basse-Normandie Region.

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Correspondence to Jérôme Ledauphin.

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Alice Paris declares that she has no conflict of interest. Jean-Luc Gaillard declares that he has no conflict of interest. Jérôme Ledauphin declares that he has no conflict of interest.

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Paris, A., Gaillard, JL. & Ledauphin, J. Rapid Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Apple: Ultrasound-Assisted Solvent Extraction Followed by Microextraction by Packed Sorbent. Food Anal. Methods 12, 2194–2204 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-019-01568-7

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Keywords

  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Apple
  • Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction
  • Microextraction by packed sorbent
  • GC-MS