Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 9, pp 2035–2044 | Cite as

Rapid and Nondestructive Quantification of Trimethylamine by FT-NIR Coupled with Chemometric Techniques

  • Akwasi Akomeah Agyekum
  • Felix Y. H. Kutsanedzie
  • Benjamin Kumah Mintah
  • Viswadevarayalu Annavaram
  • Muhammad Zareef
  • Md Mehedi Hassan
  • Muhammad Arslan
  • Quansheng ChenEmail author


This paper focused on the quick and nondestructive evaluation of trimethylamine (TMA-N) in fish storage which is sequent to its freshness, the key for controlling the quality and safety of fish products by combining Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and chemometric techniques. Calibration models of fish freshness were established using three multivariate chemometric methods—partial least square (PLS), synergy interval PLS (Si-PLS), and genetic algorithm PLS (GA-PLS) for quantitative prediction of TMA-N in fish. Results of the developed model were estimated using the correlation coefficients of the prediction (Rp) and calibration (Rc); root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the ratio of sample standard deviation to RMSEP (RPD). The established model’s performance achieved 0.943 ≤ Rp ≤ 0.977 and 4.25 ≤ RPD ≤ 4.30. The model’s prediction strength improved in the order PLS < Si-PLS < GA-PLS. GA-PLS significantly improved the prediction of TMA-N prediction with RMSEC = 5.08 and Rc = 98.28 for the calibration data whereas the prediction set gave an RMSEP = 5.10 and Rp = 97.70. FT-NIR spectroscopy combined with GA-PLS technique may be employed for rapid and non-invasive quantification of TMA-N in fish for monitoring safety and quality.


Chemometric algorithms Fish quality FT-NIR Trimethylamine Variable selection 



The authors want to express our gratitude to members of the Nondestructive Research Team of Jiangsu University for their continued support during this research.

Funding Information

This work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFD0401205), the Key R&D Program of Jiangsu Province (BE2017357), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Akwasi Akomeah Agyekum declares that he has no conflict of interest. Felix Y. H. Kutsanedzie declares that he has no conflict of interest. Benjamin Kumah Mintah declares that he has no conflict of interest. Annavaram Viswadevarayalu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Muhammad Zareef declares that he has no conflict of interest. Md Mehedi Hassan declares that he has no conflict of interest. Muhammad Arslan declares that he has no conflict of interest. Quansheng Chen declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent is not applicable to this study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akwasi Akomeah Agyekum
    • 1
    • 2
  • Felix Y. H. Kutsanedzie
    • 1
  • Benjamin Kumah Mintah
    • 1
  • Viswadevarayalu Annavaram
    • 1
  • Muhammad Zareef
    • 1
  • Md Mehedi Hassan
    • 1
  • Muhammad Arslan
    • 1
  • Quansheng Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Food and Biological EngineeringJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Ghana Atomic Energy CommissionAccraGhana

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