Detection of Phosphatidylcholine Content in Crude Oil with Bio-Enzyme Screen-Printed Electrode
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A low-cost bio-enzyme screen-printed electrode (SPE) was produced by immobilizing choline oxidase (ChOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on an SPE with MWCNTs/SnO2/CS as modified material. The conditions of ChOx were as follows: concentration of 3 U, HRP concentration of 4 U, and pH 7.5. The bio-enzyme SPE had a significant electrochemical response to phosphatidylcholine (PC); the linear relationship between the peak current and PC content ranged from 30 to 270 mg/L, and the detection limit was 3 mg/L (S/N = 3). Bio-enzyme SPE was used to detect the content of PC in soybean crude oil. The spiked recovery of the samples ranged from 96.68 to 106.21%. The detection results obtained using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the results of the bio-enzyme SPE with a high correlation (r2 = 0.9978). After 45 days of storage of the bio-enzyme SPE, the current value remained 90% of initial current. The reproducibility and stability of the PC content detected by the bio-enzyme SPE in soybean crude oil exhibited a high performance.
KeywordsCholine oxidase Horseradish peroxidase Screen-printed electrode Soybean crude oil Phosphatidylcholine content Rapid detection
Dezhi Zou, Dan Li, Xu Wang, Xin Zhang Changhua Yu, and Walid Elfalleh conceived and designed the experiments. Dianyu Yu, Dezhi Zou, and Lianzhou Jiang performed the experiments. Dezhi Zou and Changhua Yu analyzed the data (designed figures and tables). Dan Li, Xu Wang, and Xin Zhang contributed in reagents, materials, and analysis tools. Dianyu Yu, Dezhi Zou Dan Li, and Liqi Wang wrote the paper. Walid Elfalleh corrected and submitted the paper.
This work was supported by a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC): Study on the mechanism of nanomagnetic enzyme hydrolysis of soybean oil by multi-effect orientation and biosynthesis of functional lipids (No. 31571880). This work was supported by a grant from the Province Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang: Study on the Mechanism of Continuous Orientation Esterification of Nanometer Magnetic Lipase (No. C2017019). This work was also supported by a grant from the National Research Project in 13th Five-Year: Research on Key Technologies of green soybean oil production and large scale intelligent equipment. (No. 2016YFD0401402). This work was also supported by a grant from the National Research Project in 13th Five-Year: Rice bran high value steady state processing technology and intelligent equipment development and demonstration. (No. 2018YFD0401101).
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Conflict of Interest
Dianyu Yu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dezhi Zou declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dan Li declares that he has no conflict of interest. Xu Wang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Xin Zhang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Changhua Yu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Liqi Wang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Walid Elfalleh declares that he has no conflict of interest. Lianzhou Jiang declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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