Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Effective Sorbents for Rapid Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Edible Oils Using Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction (d-SPE) and Gas Chromatography—Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS)

  • D. Zacs
  • I. Rozentale
  • I. Reinholds
  • V. Bartkevics
Article

Abstract

A method was developed for the analysis of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons regulated in the European Union, namely, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene in edible oils. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were applied for dispersive solid-phase extraction of analytes from the oils after dilution with n-hexane followed by elution of analytes with toluene under reflux conditions. Gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used for quantitative determination of the analytes. The efficiency of four nanotube-based sorbents was evaluated. The performance characteristics of the method permitted reliable measurement of four regulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil samples according to the criteria stated in the Commission Regulation No. 836/2011 and considering the maximum levels (MLs) stated in the Commission Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011. The concentrations of the selected analytes in real-world samples determined by our developed method and by previously validated gel permeation chromatography method were found to be in a good agreement.

Keywords

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Dispersive solid-phase extraction Edible oils GC-MS/MS 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dzintars Zacs declares that he has no conflicts of interest. Irina Rozentale declares that she has no conflicts of interest. Ingars Reinholds declares that he has no conflicts of interest. Vadims Bartkevics declares that he has no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

This study does not contain any data obtained from human participants or animals by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable

Supplementary material

12161_2018_1240_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 18 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Zacs
    • 1
  • I. Rozentale
    • 1
  • I. Reinholds
    • 1
  • V. Bartkevics
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment “BIOR”RigaLatvia

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