CE-MS and GC-MS as “Green” and Complementary Methods for the Analysis of Biogenic Amines in Wine
Two novel complementary analytical methods, namely an extraction-free capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS) and direct immersion-solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DI-SPME-GC-MS), have been developed and successfully applied for the determination of biogenic amines (BAs) in wine and fruit wine. They have been rigorously compared to each other in terms of various analytical criteria, and in addition, their “greenness,” standing for general safety and eco-friendliness, has been assessed using three different tools. Both procedures established in this work allow to determine the major BAs that are important for human health and life. Due to a faster and easier sample preparation step, the CE-MS method seems to be more user-friendly for routine and laborious analyses. On the other hand, the LOD values noted for the GC-MS method were always lower than those for the CE-MS approach. The lowest LOD in GC-MS was 3.1 ng/mL, while in CE-MS 25 ng/mL. This may be beneficial when BAs are present in wine at low concentration. The recovery values obtained for the CE-MS and GC-MS methods were similar and ranged from 65 to 117% and 64 to 106%, respectively. The greenness profile of these methodologies has been assessed and compared to each other using the following tools: National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), greening profile algorithm, and analytical Eco-Scale. The evaluation based on all three scales indicates that both methods proposed in this works meet the requirements of a “green analytical chemistry” and can be safely used for the routine analysis of the studied BAs in wine samples with a minimal detrimental impact on human health and the environment.
KeywordsBiogenic amines Wine Fruit wine Gas chromatography Capillary electrophoresis Solid-phase microextraction Analytical Eco-Scale
This study was funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education within the “Iuventus Plus” program in years 2015–2018, project no. IP2014 037573. The study was carried out with equipment purchased thanks to the European Regional Development Fund within framework of the Polish Innovation Economy Operational Program (contract no. POIG.0 2.01.00-12-0 23/08).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Justyna Płotka-Wasylka has received research grants from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education and she declares no conflict of interest. Michał Woźniakiewicz declares that he has no conflict of interest. Aneta Woźniakiewicz declares that she has no conflict of interest. Paweł Mateusz Nowak declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ewa Kłodzińska declares that she has no conflict of interest. Jacek Namieśnik declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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