Exploratory Analysis Applied for the Evaluation of Yerba Mate Adulteration (Ilex paraguariensis)
- 116 Downloads
Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to evaluate the potential to detect different sucrose concentrations added as adulterants in yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis). For this purpose, the data acquired from 15 yerba mate samples were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Sucrose solutions from 5 to 30% of the total yerba quantity were added to each sample and analyzed in conjunction with the raw yerba mate sample. The fingerprint region (1300–800 cm−1) was extracted from the resulted spectra, smoothed by the Savitzky Golay method, normalized, average spectra of the triplicates and first derivative. Discrimination between the different sucrose concentrations in the samples was achieved by the exploratory analysis, demonstrating a sucrose concentration gradient in the PC1 × PC2 score plot. In this way, the results suggest a potential industrial use of ATR-FTIR alongside with chemometrics to avoid a frequent sugar adulteration in a simple, fast, and reliable methodology.
KeywordsAdulteration Ilex paraguariensis Sucrose Principal component analysis Hierarchical cluster analysis
The authors thank Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), for the scholarship; Ervateira Valério, for the support; and TECNOUNISC - MCTIC (01.0144.00/2010).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Manuella Schneider declares that she has no conflict of interest. Rosana C. S. Schneider declares that she has no conflict of interest. Valeriano A. Corbellini declares that he has no conflict of interest. Cláudia M. Mahlmann declares that she has no conflict of interest. Claudimar Sidnei Fior declares that he has no conflict of interest. Marco Flôres Ferrão declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
Publication has been approved by all individual participants.
- Anastasaki E, Kanakis C, Pappas C, Maggi L, del Campo CP, Carmona M, Alonso GL, Polissiou MG (2010) Differentiation of saffron from four countries by mid-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis. Eur Food Res Technol 230:571–577. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-009-1197-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- ANVISA Resolução RDC no 303 de 07 de novembro de 2002Google Scholar
- Bastos DHM, Oliveira DD, Matsumoto RT, Carvalho PDO, Ribeiro ML (2007) Yerba mate: pharmacological properties, research and biotechnology. Med Aromat Plant Sci Biotechnol 1:37–46Google Scholar
- Chen Q, Zhao J, Lin H (2009) Study on discrimination of roast green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) according to geographical origin by FT-NIR spectroscopy and supervised pattern recognition. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 72:845–850. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2008.12.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Colthup N (2012) Introduction to infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Elsevier Science, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- FAOSTAT (2017) Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Statistics Division 2017Google Scholar
- Helfer GA, Bock F, Marder L, Furtado JC, Costa AB, Ferrão MF (2015) Chemostat, um software gratuito para análise exploratória de dados multivariados. Química Nova 38:575–579Google Scholar
- Kennedy S (2012) Emerging global food system risks and potential solutions. In: Improving import food safety. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, pp 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118464298.ch1
- Nickless E, Holroyd SE, Hamilton G, Gordon K, Wargent JJ (2016a) Analytical method development using FTIR-ATR and FT-Raman spectroscopy to assay fructose, sucrose, glucose and dihydroxyacetone, in Leptospermum scoparium nectar. 84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2016.02.011
- Nickless EM, Holroyd SE, Hamilton G, Gordon KC, Wargent JJ (2016b) Analytical method development using FTIR-ATR and FT-Raman spectroscopy to assay fructose, sucrose, glucose and dihydroxyacetone, in Leptospermum scoparium nectar. Vib Spectrosc 84:38–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2016.02.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez-Saona LE, Giusti MM, Shotts M (2016) 4 - Advances in Infrared Spectroscopy for Food Authenticity Testing A2. In: Downey G (ed) Advances in Food Authenticity Testing. Woodhead Publishing, pp 71–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100220-9.00004-7
- Svečnjak L, Biliškov N, Bubalo D, Barišić D (2011) Application of infrared spectroscopy in honey analysis. Agric Conspec Sci (ACS) 76:191–195Google Scholar