Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 11, Issue 7, pp 2035–2041 | Cite as

Exploratory Analysis Applied for the Evaluation of Yerba Mate Adulteration (Ilex paraguariensis)

  • Manuella Schneider
  • Rosana C. S. Schneider
  • Valeriano A. Corbellini
  • Cláudia M. Mahlmann
  • Claudimar Sidnei Fior
  • Marco Flôres Ferrão


Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to evaluate the potential to detect different sucrose concentrations added as adulterants in yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis). For this purpose, the data acquired from 15 yerba mate samples were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Sucrose solutions from 5 to 30% of the total yerba quantity were added to each sample and analyzed in conjunction with the raw yerba mate sample. The fingerprint region (1300–800 cm−1) was extracted from the resulted spectra, smoothed by the Savitzky Golay method, normalized, average spectra of the triplicates and first derivative. Discrimination between the different sucrose concentrations in the samples was achieved by the exploratory analysis, demonstrating a sucrose concentration gradient in the PC1 × PC2 score plot. In this way, the results suggest a potential industrial use of ATR-FTIR alongside with chemometrics to avoid a frequent sugar adulteration in a simple, fast, and reliable methodology.


Adulteration Ilex paraguariensis Sucrose Principal component analysis Hierarchical cluster analysis 



The authors thank Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), for the scholarship; Ervateira Valério, for the support; and TECNOUNISC - MCTIC (01.0144.00/2010).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Manuella Schneider declares that she has no conflict of interest. Rosana C. S. Schneider declares that she has no conflict of interest. Valeriano A. Corbellini declares that he has no conflict of interest. Cláudia M. Mahlmann declares that she has no conflict of interest. Claudimar Sidnei Fior declares that he has no conflict of interest. Marco Flôres Ferrão declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Publication has been approved by all individual participants.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuella Schneider
    • 1
  • Rosana C. S. Schneider
    • 2
  • Valeriano A. Corbellini
    • 2
  • Cláudia M. Mahlmann
    • 2
  • Claudimar Sidnei Fior
    • 3
  • Marco Flôres Ferrão
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Instituto de QuímicaUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Universidade de Santa Cruz do SulSanta Cruz do SulBrazil
  3. 3.Faculdade de AgronomiaUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia - Bioanalítca (INCT – Bioanalítica)Cidade Universitária Zeferino VazCampinasBrazil

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