A robust analytical method for simultaneously determining five neonicotinoid insecticides (clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in commonly consumed edible fungi (Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus eryngii) was provided in the present study. Samples were pretreated using a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged, and safe) method with the detection of neonicotinoids by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A number of optimizations performed to sample pretreatment and detection conditions were discussed. Limits of detection (LODs) for all analytes in edible fungi were between 0.03 and 0.7 μg kg−1, while limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.1 to 2 μg kg−1. Mean recoveries for clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam were in the range of 100.5–118.0, 73.9–89.5, 88.6–117.8, 72.9–121.8, and 98.9–117.2%, respectively, with RSDs less than 8.1%. This method could be used for fast screen of the five neonicotinoid insecticides in edible fungi for risk assessing aims.
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This study was financially supported by the Pesticide Residue Foundation of Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (No. 2016050).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Zhou Lu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Nan Fang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Zhongbei Zhang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Bo Wang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Zhiguang Hou declares that he has no comflict of interest. Zhongbin Lu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Yueru Li declares that she has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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