Skip to main content
Log in

Isotopic and Elemental Authenticity Markers: a Case Study on Cypriot Wines

  • Published:
Food Analytical Methods Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

This study monitors variations in isotopes and elements in relation to grape variety, environmental factors and provenance in order to address the wine authenticity issue. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) assessed the wines’ elemental content. Site-specific nuclear isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance and isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodologies determined in authentic and commercial wines the distribution of the naturally occurring stable isotopes of the deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratios and carbon (13C/12C) in ethanol of wine and oxygen ratio (18O/16O) in wine water. Chemometrics delineated the elements and isotopes responsible for wine classification. Specifically, unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) framed the importance of grape variety and provenance, while supervised analysis pinpointed the vineyard effect and highlighted the contribution of the vintage year. Validation steps ensured that the extracted models do not predict randomly and their results are reliable. In fact, the acquired results can be incorporated to the EU Wine Isotopic Databank database providing both a guide and a tool for eventual candidatures for denomination of origin and support both Cypriot wine and winemakers. In this context, this research contributes to authenticity assurance of wines and adds value to final products, while it helps controlling hazards arising from environmental changes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Aghemo C, Albertino A, Gobetto R, Spanna F (2011) Correlation between isotopic and meteorological parameters in Italian wines: a local-scale approach. J Sci Food Agr 91:2088–2094

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ballabio D, Kokkinofta R, Todeschini R, Theocharis CR (2007) Characterization of the traditional Cypriot spirit Zivania by means of counterpropagation artificial neural networks. A classification model built by means of artificial neural networks. Chemometr Intell Lab 87:78–84

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bigwood T, Sharman M, Aldus A, Dennis MJ (1998) Global variations in the deuterium/hydrogen isotope ratios of wine. J Wine Res 9:155–166

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Calgano F, Favati F, Caruso M, Scarpa T, Palma A (2008) Analysis of trace elements in southern Italian wines and their classification according to provenance. LWT-Food Sci Technol 41:1808–1815

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Christoph N, Rossmann A, Voerkelius S (2003) Possibilities and limitations of wine authentication using stable isotope and metereological data, data banks and statistical tests. Part 1: wines from Franconia and Lake Constance 1992 to 2001. Mitt Klosterneuburg 53:23–40

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dinca OR, Ionete RE, Costinel D, Geana IE, Popescu R, Stefanescul I, Radu GL (2016) Regional and vintage discrimination of Romanian wines based on elemental and isotopic fingerprinting. Food Anal Methods 9:2406–2417

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dordevic N, Wehrens R, Postma GJ, Buydens LMC, Camin F (2012) Statistical methods for improving verification of claims of origin for Italian wines based on stable isotope ratios. Anal Chim Acta 757:19–25

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dunbar J (1982) A study of the factors affecting the 180/160 ratio of the water of wine. Eur Food Res Technol 11:355–359

    Google Scholar 

  • Dutra SV, Adami L, Marcon AR, Carnieli GJ, Roani CA, Spinelli FR, Leonardelli S, Vanderlinde R (2013) Characterization of wines according the geographical origin by analysis of isotopes and minerals and the influence of harvest on the isotope values. Food Chem 141:2148–2153

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Eriksson L, Johansson E, Kettaneh-Wold N, Wold S (2006) Multi- and megavariate data analysis. Umetrics AB, Sweden

    Google Scholar 

  • Geana EI, Marinescu A, Iordache MA, Sandru C, Ionete RE, Bala C (2014) Differentiation of Romanian wines on geographical origin and wine variety by elemental composition and phenolic components. Food Anal Method 7:2064–2074

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Geană EI, Sandru C, Stanciu V, Ionete ER (2017) Elemental profile and 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio as fingerprints for geographical traceability of wines: an approach on Romanian wines. Food Anal Methods 10:63–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Giaccio M, Vicentini A (2008) Determination of the geographical origin of wines by means of the mineral content and the stable isotope ratios: a review. J Commodity Sci Tech Quality 47:267–284

    Google Scholar 

  • Gilbert A, Hattori R, Silvestre V, Wasano N, Akoka S, Hirano S, Yamada K, Yoshida N, Remaud GS (2012) Comparison of IRMS and NMR spectrometry for the determination of intramolecular 13C isotope composition: application to ethanol. Talanta 99:1035–1039

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gimenez-Miralles JE, Salazar DM, Solana I (1999) Regional origin assignment of red wines from Valencia (Spain) by 2H NMR and 13C IRMS stable isotope analysis of fermentative ethanol. J Agric Food Chem 47:2645–2652

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gómez-Alonso S, García-Romero E (2010) Effect of irrigation and variety on oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope composition of grapes cultivated in a warm climate. Aust J Grape Wine Res 16:283–289

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grindlay G, Mora J, Gras L, de Loos-Vollebregt MTC (2011) Atomic spectrometry methods for wine analysis: a critical evaluation and discussion of recent applications. Anal Chim Acta 691:18–32

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kallithraka S, Arvanitoyannis IS, Kefalas P, El-Zajouli A, Soufleros E, Psarra E (2001) Instrumental and sensory analysis of Greek wines; implementation of principal component analysis (PCA) for classification according to geographical origin. Food Chem 73:501–514

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kment P, Mihaljevic M, Ettler V, Sebek O, Strnad L, Rohlova L (2005) Differentiation of Czech wines using multielement composition—a comparison with vineyard soil. Food Chem 91:157–165

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kokkinofta R, Economidou N, Tzioni E, Damianou K, Poulli K, Savvidou C, Louka C, Kanari P (2014) Studies on the authenticity of local wines by spectroscopic and chemometric analysis. J C C E8:101–107

    Google Scholar 

  • Kokkinofta RP, Petrakis V, Mavromoustakos T, Theocharis CR (2003) Authenticity of the traditional Cypriot spirit “Zivania” on the basis of metal content using a combination of coupled plasma spectroscopy and statistical analysis. J Agric Food Chem 51:6233–6239

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kokkinofta RI, Theocharis CR (2005) Chemometric characterization of the Cypriot Spirit “Zivania”. J Agric Food Chem 53:5067–5073

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kosir I, Kocjancic M, Ogrinc N, Kidric J (2001) Use of SNIF-NMR and IR-MS in combination with chemometric methods for the determination of chaptalisation and geographical origin of wines. Anal Chim Acta 429:195–206

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kruzlicova D, Fiket Ž, Kniewald G (2013) Classification of Croatian wine varieties using multivariate analysis of data obtained by high resolution ICP-MS analysis. Food Res Int 54:621–626

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Martin GJ, Guillou C, Martin ML, Cabanis MT, Yutthay T, Aerny J (1988) Natural factors of isotope fractionation and the characterization of wines. J Agric Food Chem 36:316–322

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Martin GJ, Guillou C, Martin ML, Mabon K, Michon MJ (1983) A new method for the identification of the origin of ethanols in grain and fruit spirit: high-field quantitative deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance at the natural abundance level. J Agric Food Chem 31:311–315

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Martin GJ, Zhang BL, Naulet N, Martin ML (1986) Deuterium transfer in the bioconversion of glucose to ethanol studied by specific isotope labeling at the natural abundance level. J Am Chem Soc 108:5116–5122

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Monakhova YB, Godelmann R, Hermann A, Kuballa T, Cannet C, Schäfer H, Spraul M, Rutledge DN (2014) Synergistic effect of the simultaneous chemometric analysis of 1H NMR spectroscopic and stable isotope (SNIF-NMR 18O 13C) data: application to wine analysis. Anal Chim Acta 833:29–39

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ogrinc N, Bat K, Kosir IJ, Golob T, Kokkinofta R (2009) Characterization of commercial Slovenian and Cypriot fruit juices using stable isotopes. J Agric Food Chem 57:6764–6769

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ogrinc N, Kosir IJ, Kocjancic M, Kidric J (2001) Determinaion of authenticity regional origin and vintage of Slovenian wines using a combination of IR-MS and SNIF-NMR analyses. J Agric Food Chem 49:1432–1440

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Papayianni EI, Kokkinofta RI, Theocharis CR (2011) Authenticity of Cypriot sweet wine Commandaria using FT-IR and chemometrics. J Food Sci 3:C420–C427

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Petrakis PV, Touris I, Liouni M, Zervou M, Kyrikou I, Kokkinofta R, Theocharis CR, Mavromoustakos T (2005) Authenticity of the traditional Cypriot Spirit “Zivania” on the basis of 1H NMR spectroscopy diagnostic parameters and statistical analysis. J Agric Food Chem 53:5293–5303

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts JJ, Cozzolino D (2016) An overview on the application of chemometrics in food science and technology—an approach to quantitative data analysis. Food Anal Methods 9:3258–3267

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robmann A, Reniero F, Moussa I, Schmidt HL, Versini G, Merle MH (1999) Stable oxygen isotope content of water of EU data-bank wines from Italy France and Germany. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 208:400–407

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robmann A, Schmidt HL, Reniero F, Versini G, Moussa I, Merle MH (1996) Stable carbon isotope content in ethanol of EU data bank wines from Italy France and Germany. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 203:293–301

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Romisch U, Jager H, Capron X, Lanteri S, Forina M, Smeyers-Verbeke J (2009) Characterization and determination of the geographical origin of wines part III: multivariate discrimination and classification methods. Eur Food Res Technol 230:31–45

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Trygg J, Holmes E, Lundstedt T (2007) Chemometrics in metabonomics. J Proteome Res 6:469–479

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vickers J (1993) Vines and wines of Cyprus 4000 years of tradition. Vine prοducts commission, Limassol

    Google Scholar 

  • Wheelock AM, Wheelock CE (2013) Trials and tribulations of 'omics data analysis: assessing quality of SIMCA-based multivariate models using examples from pulmonary medicine. Mol BioSyst 9:2589–2596

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The work presented here was co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Research Promotion Foundation (projects ΥΓΕΙΑ/ΤΡΟΦΗ/0609 (ΒΙΕ)/09 and BILATERAL/CY-RO/0713). We are grateful to Mrs. Maria Shiakalli (Viticulture and Oenology Section of the Ministry of Agriculture) for providing the samples and useful discussions.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Rebecca Kokkinofta or Charalambos Fotakis.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

Rebecca Kokkinofta declares that she has no conflict of interest. Charalambos Fotakis declares that he has no conflict of interest. Maria Zervou declares that she has no conflict of interest. Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis declares that he has no conflict of interest. Chara Savvidou declares that she has no conflict of interest. Konstantina Poulli declares that she has no conflict of interest. Charalambos Louka declares that he has no conflict of interest. Naso Economidou declares that she has no conflict of interest. Eleni Tzioni declares that she has no conflict of interest. Katerina Damianou declares that she has no conflict of interest. Sofia Loupasaki declares that she has no conflict of interest. Panagiotis Kefalas declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Additional information

Panagiotis Kefalas deceased in 2014

Electronic Supplementary Material

ESM 1

(DOCX 19 kb)

ESM 2

(DOCX 21 kb)

ESM 3

(DOCX 931 kb)

ESM 4

(DOCX 255 kb)

ESM 5

(DOCX 65 kb)

ESM 6

(DOCX 152 kb)

ESM 7

(DOCX 228 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kokkinofta, R., Fotakis, C., Zervou, M. et al. Isotopic and Elemental Authenticity Markers: a Case Study on Cypriot Wines. Food Anal. Methods 10, 3902–3913 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-017-0959-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-017-0959-2

Keywords

Navigation