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Isotopic and Elemental Authenticity Markers: a Case Study on Cypriot Wines

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This study monitors variations in isotopes and elements in relation to grape variety, environmental factors and provenance in order to address the wine authenticity issue. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) assessed the wines’ elemental content. Site-specific nuclear isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance and isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodologies determined in authentic and commercial wines the distribution of the naturally occurring stable isotopes of the deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratios and carbon (13C/12C) in ethanol of wine and oxygen ratio (18O/16O) in wine water. Chemometrics delineated the elements and isotopes responsible for wine classification. Specifically, unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) framed the importance of grape variety and provenance, while supervised analysis pinpointed the vineyard effect and highlighted the contribution of the vintage year. Validation steps ensured that the extracted models do not predict randomly and their results are reliable. In fact, the acquired results can be incorporated to the EU Wine Isotopic Databank database providing both a guide and a tool for eventual candidatures for denomination of origin and support both Cypriot wine and winemakers. In this context, this research contributes to authenticity assurance of wines and adds value to final products, while it helps controlling hazards arising from environmental changes.

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The work presented here was co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Research Promotion Foundation (projects ΥΓΕΙΑ/ΤΡΟΦΗ/0609 (ΒΙΕ)/09 and BILATERAL/CY-RO/0713). We are grateful to Mrs. Maria Shiakalli (Viticulture and Oenology Section of the Ministry of Agriculture) for providing the samples and useful discussions.

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Correspondence to Rebecca Kokkinofta or Charalambos Fotakis.

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Conflict of Interest

Rebecca Kokkinofta declares that she has no conflict of interest. Charalambos Fotakis declares that he has no conflict of interest. Maria Zervou declares that she has no conflict of interest. Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis declares that he has no conflict of interest. Chara Savvidou declares that she has no conflict of interest. Konstantina Poulli declares that she has no conflict of interest. Charalambos Louka declares that he has no conflict of interest. Naso Economidou declares that she has no conflict of interest. Eleni Tzioni declares that she has no conflict of interest. Katerina Damianou declares that she has no conflict of interest. Sofia Loupasaki declares that she has no conflict of interest. Panagiotis Kefalas declares that he has no conflict of interest.

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This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Panagiotis Kefalas deceased in 2014

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Kokkinofta, R., Fotakis, C., Zervou, M. et al. Isotopic and Elemental Authenticity Markers: a Case Study on Cypriot Wines. Food Anal. Methods 10, 3902–3913 (2017).

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