Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 10, pp 3312–3320 | Cite as

Chromatographic Fingerprinting with Multivariate Data Analysis for Detection and Quantification of Apricot Kernel in Almond Powder

  • Mahnaz EstekiEmail author
  • Bahman Farajmand
  • Yadollah Kolahderazi
  • Jesus Simal-Gandara


Adulteration of almond powder samples with apricot kernel was solved by gas chromatographic fatty acid fingerprinting combined with multivariate data analysis methods (principal component analysis (PCA), PCA-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA), partial least squares (PLS), and LS support vector machine (LS-SVM). Different almond and apricot kernel samples were mixed at concentrations ranging from 10 to 90% w/w. PCA and PCA-LDA methods were applied for the classification of almonds, apricot kernels, and mixtures. PLS and LS-SVM were used for the quantification of adulteration ratios of almond. Models were developed using a training data set and evaluated using a validation data set. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and coefficient of determination (R 2) of validation data set obtained for PLS and LS-SVM were 5.01, 0.964 and 2.29, 0.995, respectively. The results showed that the methods can be applied as an effective and feasible method for testing almond adulteration.


Adulteration Almond Apricot kernel Gas chromatographic fatty acid fingerprinting PCA-LDA and LS-SVM 


Compliance with Ethical Standards


This study was funded by the University of Zanjan.

Conflict of Interest

Mahnaz Esteki declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Bahman Farajmand declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Yadollah Kolahderazi declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Jesus Simal-Gandara declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of ZanjanZanjanIran
  2. 2.Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Food Science and Technology FacultyUniversity of VigoOurenseSpain

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