Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 2607–2618 | Cite as

Rapid Analysis of some Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals Leaching from Baby Milk Feeding Bottles Using SPME and SDME Techniques

Article

Abstract

The sample preparation methods such as the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and the single-drop microextraction (SDME) for preconcentration of some endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) leaching from baby milk feeding bottles were developed. Afterwards, all analytes were determined by using the GC-MS technique. The parameters affecting extraction efficiency of both methods including fiber coating, extraction time, extraction temperature, salting-out effect, desorption time, organic solvent, drop volume, pH of the solution, and stirring rate were also investigated. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the results from the developed methods revealed that the analysis time used was somewhat short (<8 min). The detection limits was low (LOD, 0.02–0.12 μg/mL for direct-SPME and 0.07–0.17 μg/mL for direct-SDME). The precision was slightly satisfactory (RSD, <5.9% of intra-day, <7.9% of inter-day for direct-SPME and <4.3% of intra-day, <4.7% of inter-day for direct-SDME). Moreover, the recoveries in both techniques were slightly high (85–102% for direct-SPME and 84–103% for direct-SDME). In this regard, both direct-SPME and direct-SDME methods could be used as alternative ways for the sensitive determination of some EDCs. Besides, the simple, rapid, and efficient features of the proposed method were demonstrated by the analysis of these compounds in aqueous solution.

Keywords

Endocrine disruptor chemicals SPME SDME Microextraction GC-MS 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I would like to give special thanks to the Chemistry program, Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University for instrument support along this research. I would also like to thank the Center of Excellent for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC) and Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University for financial support. Finally, I would like to thank all the staffs who made it possible to complete this research.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Yuttasak Chammui declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies on human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

References

  1. Arisseto AP, Vicente E, Furlani RPZ, Pereira ALD, Toledo MCF (2013) Development of a headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) method for the determination of benzene in soft drinks. Food Anal Methods 6:1379–1387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bagheri H, Saraji M (2003) Conductive polymers as new media for solid-phase extraction: isolation of chlorophenols from water sample. J Chromatogr A 986:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Basheer C, Lee HK (2004) Analysis of endocrine disrupting alkylphenols, chlorophenols and bisphenol-A using hollow fiber-protected liquid-phase microextraction coupled with injection port-derivatization gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1057:163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ben Fredj S, Nobbs J, Tizaoui C, Monser L (2015) Removal of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) from wastewater by liquid–liquid extraction. Chem Eng J 262:417–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Braun P, Moeder M, Schrader S, Popp P, Kuschk P, Engewald W (2003) Trace analysis of technical nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 17α-ethinylestradiol in wastewater using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 988:41–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buchholz KD, Pawliszyn J (1994) Optimization of solid-phase microextraction conditions for determination of phenols. Anal Chem 66:160–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campillo N, Penalver R, Cordoba MH (2006) Evaluation of solid-phase microextraction conditions for the determination of chlorophenols in honey samples using gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1125:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. del Olmo M, Zafra A, Suarez B, Casado AG, Taoufiki J, Vilchez JL (2005) Use of solid-phase microextraction followed by on-column silylation for determining chlorinated bisphenol A in human plasma by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B 817:167–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Faraji M, Noorani M, Sahneh BN (2016) Quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method followed by ionic liquid-dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for the determination of trace amount of bisphenol A in canned foods. Food Anal Methods. doi: 10.1007/s12161-016-0635-y Google Scholar
  10. Helaleh MIH, Tanaka K, Fujii S, Korenaga T (2001) GC/MS determination of phenolic compounds in soil samples using soxhlet extraction and derivatization techniques. Anal Sci 17:1225–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. ICH (1996) Harmonised tripartite guideline, validation of analytical procedures: text and methodology Q2(R1), Current Step 4 version (complementary guideline on methodology dated 6 November incorporated in November 2005)Google Scholar
  12. Jeannot MA, Cantwell FF (1996) Solvent microextraction into a single drop. Anal Chem 68:2236–2240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ke Y, Li W, Wang Y, Hao X, Jiang R, Zhub F, Ouyang G (2014) Comparison of fully-automated headspace single drop microextraction and headspace solid phase microextraction techniques for rapid analysis of no. 6 solvent residues in edible oil. Microchem J 117:187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lancas FM, Olivares IRB, Alves PM (2007) Development, validation and application of a method to analyze phenols in water samples by solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. J Environ Sci Health Part B 42:491–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lopez-Darias J, German-Hernandez M, Pino V, Afonso AM (2010) Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction versus single-drop microextraction for the determination of several endocrine-disrupting phenols from seawaters. Talanta 80:1611–1618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lopez-Darias J, Pino V, Ayala JH, Afonso AM (2011) In-situ ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method to determine endocrine disrupting phenols in seawaters and industrial effluents. Microchim Acta 14:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mahugo-Santana C, Sosa-Ferrera Z, Torres-Padrón ME, Santana-Rodríguez JJ (2011) Application of new approaches to liquid-phase microextraction for the determination of emerging pollutants. TrAC-Trend Anal Chem 30:731–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Miller JC, Miller JN (1993) Statistics for analytical chemistry, 3rd edn. Ellis Horwood, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Ouyang G, Vuckovic D, Pawliszyn J (2011) Nondestructive sampling of living systems using in vivo solid-phase microextraction. Chem Rev 111:2784–2814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pawliszyn J (1997) Solid phase microextraction: theory and practice. Wiley—VCH, New York, p 275Google Scholar
  21. Pena-Pereira F, Lavilla I, Bendicho C (2010) Liquid-phase microextraction techniques within the framework of green chemistry. TrAC-Trend Anal Chem 29:617–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pereira dos Anjos J, Andrade de JB (2014) Determination of nineteen pesticides (organophosphates, organochlorine, pyrethroids, carbamate, thiocarbamate and strobilurin) in coconut water SDME/GC–MS. Microchem J 112:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Psillakis E, Kalogerakis N (2001) Solid-phase microextraction versus single-drop microextraction for the analysis of nitroaromatic explosives in water samples. J Chromatogr A 938:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Regueiro J, Becerril E, Garcia-Jares C, Llompart M (2009) Trace analysis of parabens triclosan and related chlorophenols in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction with in situ derivatization and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1216:4693–4702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ribeiro A, Neves MH, Almeida MF, Alves A, Santos L (2002) Direct determination of chlorophenols in landfill leachates by solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 975:267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sadeghi M, Nematifar Z, Fattahi N, Pirsaheb M, Shamsipur M (2016) Determination of bisphenol a in food and environmental samples using combined solid-phase extraction–dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic drop followed by HPLC. Food Anal Methods 9:1814–1824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sarafraz-Yazdi A, Amiri A (2001) Liquid-phase microextraction. Trends Anal Chem 29(1):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Saraji M, Bakhshi M (2005) Determination of phenols in water samples by single-drop microextraction followed by in-syringe derivatization and gas chromatography–mass spectrometric detection. J Chromatogr A 1098:30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sarrion MN, Santos FJ, Galceran MT (2002) Determination of chlorophenols by solid-phase microextraction and liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr A 947:155–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Song X, Li J, Chen L, Cai Z, Liao C, Peng H, Xiong H (2012) Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in seawater using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the aid of experimental design. J Braz Chem Soc 23:132–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tankeviciute A, Kazlauskas R, Vickackaite V (2001) Headspace extraction of alcohols into a single drop. Analyst 126:1674–1677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang Y, Li Y, Zhang J, Xu S, Yang S, Sun C (2009) A novel fluorinated polyaniline based solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography for quantitative determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples. Anal Chim Acta 646:78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wardencki W, Curylo J, Namiesnik J (2007) Trends in solventless sample preparation techniques for environmental analysis. J Biochem Biophys Methods 70:275–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wu YY, Yang CX, Yan XP (2014) Fabrication of metal-organic framework MIL-88B films on stainless steel fibers for solid-phase microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls. J Chromatogr A 1334:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wu H, Li G, Liu S, Hu N, Geng D, Chen G, Sun Z, Zhao X, Xia L, You J (2016) Monitoring the contents of six steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in chicken, fish and aquaculture pond water samples using pre-column derivatization and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction with the aid of experimental design methodology. Food Chem 192:98–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ye C, Zhou Q, Wang X (2007) Improved single-drop microextraction for high sensitive analysis. J Chromatogr A 1139:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zgoła-Grześkowiak A (2015) Magnetic retrieval of ionic liquid formed during in situ metathesis dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction–preconcentration of selected endocrine disrupting phenols from an enlarged sample volume. Anal Methods 7:1076–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhang M, Huang J, Wei C, Yu B, Yang X, Chen X (2008) Mixed liquids for single-drop microextraction of organochlorine pesticides in vegetables. Talanta 74:599–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhao L, Lee HK (2001) Determination of phenols in water using liquid phase microextraction with back extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 931:95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhou Q, Hao Y, Xie G (2011) Determination of bisphenol A, 4-n-nonylphenol, and 4-tert-octylphenol by temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector. Talanta 85:1598–1602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhu F, Xu J, Ke Y, Huang S, Zeng F, Luan T, Ouyang G (2013) Applications of in vivo and in vitro solid-phase microextraction techniques in plant analysis: a review. Anal Chim Acta 794:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemistry Program, Faculty of Science and TechnologyPibulsongkram Rajabhat UniversityPhitsanulokThailand

Personalised recommendations