Determination of Natamycin in Dairy Products Using Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and Indirect Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
- 206 Downloads
In this paper, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of natamycin from cheese and doogh samples and its determination by indirect flame atomic absorption spectrometry. For this purpose, an appropriate mixture of a disperser solvent (ethanol) and an extraction solvent (1,1,2-trichloroethane) is rapidly injected into the samples and Zn2+ cation was added. During this process, natamycin-Zn complex is extracted into fine droplets of the extraction solvent. After centrifugation, the fine droplets of the extractant containing the complex are sedimented at the bottom of a tube with conical bottom. The sedimented phase is injected into the determination system via a home-made sample introduction system. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range was between 5 and 1000 ng mL−1. The limit of detection of the target analyte was obtained 1.8 ng mL−1. The relative recoveries obtained for the spiked cheese and doogh samples were between 86 and 98%. Moreover, the precision of the method was acceptable (<3.9%) in all spiked concentrations. Finally, the method was successfully applied to determine natamycin in cheese and doogh samples.
KeywordsNatamycin Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction Flame atomic absorption spectrometry Doogh Cheese
Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction
Flame atomic absorption spectrometry
Hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction
High performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection
Indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Limit of detection
Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry
Liquid phase microextraction
Relative standard deviation
- 1,1,2,2 –TCE
The authors would like to thank the Research Office at the University of Tabriz for financial support.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Saeed Mohammad Sorouraddin has received research grants from University of Tabriz.
Conflict of Interest
Saeed Mohammad Sorouraddin declares that he has no conflict of interest. Mir Ali Farajzadeh declares that he has no conflict of interest. Abdollah Hassanyani declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
- Alberts P, Stander MA, de Villiers A (2011) Development of a fast, sensitive and robust LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of natamycin in wine. S Afr J Enol Vitic 32:51–59Google Scholar
- Berijani S, Assadi Y, Anbia M, Milani Hosseini MR, Aghaee E (2006) Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection: very simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water. J Chromatogr A 1123:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Capitan-Vallvey LF, Checa-Moreno R, Navas N, Checa-Moreno LF, Navas N (2000) Rapid ultraviolet spectrophotometric and liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of natamycin in lactoserum matrix. J AOAC Int 83:802–808Google Scholar
- de Ruig WGJ, van Oostrom J, Leenheer K (1987) Spectrometric and liquid chromatographic determination of natamycin in cheese and cheese rind. J Assoc Off Ana Chem 70:944–948Google Scholar
- EFSA panel on food additives and nutrient sources added to food (2009) Scientific opinion on the use of natamycin (E235) as a food additive. EFSA J 7:1–25Google Scholar
- El-Diasty E, El-Kaseh R, Salem R (2008) The effect of natamycin on keeping quality and organoleptic characters of yoghurt. Arab J Biotech 12:41–48Google Scholar
- Fletouris DJ, Botsoglou NA, Mantis AJ (1995) Rapid spectrophotometric method for analyzing natamycin in cheese and cheese rind. J AOAC Int 78:1024–1029Google Scholar
- Gallo L, Jagus R (2006) Modelling Saccharomyces cerevisiae inactivation by natamycin in liquid cheese whey. Braz J Food Tech 9:311–316Google Scholar
- Ojeda CB, Rojas FS (2009) Separation and preconcentration by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure: a review. Chromatographia 69:1–11Google Scholar
- Parliament EU, Council Directive No 95/2/EC of 20 February (1995) On food additives other than colours and sweeteners. Official Journal of the European Union L 061:1–40Google Scholar
- Stark J (2000) Permitted preservatives—natamycin. In: Robinson RK, Batt CA, Patel PD (eds) Encyclopedia of food microbiology, vol 3. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 1776–1781Google Scholar
- Struyk AP, Hoette I, Drost G, Waisvisz JM, Van Eek T, Hoogerheide JC (1957-1958) Pimaricin, a new antifungal antibiotic. Antibiot Annu 5:878–885Google Scholar
- Tuinstra LG, Traaq WA (1982) Liquid chromatographic determination of natamycin in cheese at residue levels. J Assoc Off Ana Chem 65:820–822Google Scholar