Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 2529–2538 | Cite as

Determination of Natamycin in Dairy Products Using Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and Indirect Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

  • Saeed Mohammad Sorouraddin
  • Mir Ali Farajzadeh
  • Abdollah Hassanyani
Article
  • 206 Downloads

Abstract

In this paper, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of natamycin from cheese and doogh samples and its determination by indirect flame atomic absorption spectrometry. For this purpose, an appropriate mixture of a disperser solvent (ethanol) and an extraction solvent (1,1,2-trichloroethane) is rapidly injected into the samples and Zn2+ cation was added. During this process, natamycin-Zn complex is extracted into fine droplets of the extraction solvent. After centrifugation, the fine droplets of the extractant containing the complex are sedimented at the bottom of a tube with conical bottom. The sedimented phase is injected into the determination system via a home-made sample introduction system. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range was between 5 and 1000 ng mL−1. The limit of detection of the target analyte was obtained 1.8 ng mL−1. The relative recoveries obtained for the spiked cheese and doogh samples were between 86 and 98%. Moreover, the precision of the method was acceptable (<3.9%) in all spiked concentrations. Finally, the method was successfully applied to determine natamycin in cheese and doogh samples.

Keywords

Natamycin Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction Flame atomic absorption spectrometry Doogh Cheese 

Abbreviations

1,2-DBE

1,2-Dibromoethane

DLLME

Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction

EF

Enrichment factor

ER

Extraction recovery

FAAS

Flame atomic absorption spectrometry

HF-LPME

Hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction

HPLC-DAD

High performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection

ic-ELISA

Indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

LR

Linear range

LOD

Limit of detection

LC-MS/MS

Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

LPME

Liquid phase microextraction

NT

Natamycin

RSD

Relative standard deviation

SDME

Single-drop microextraction

1,1,2,2 –TCE

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

1,1,2-TCE

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Research Office at the University of Tabriz for financial support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

Saeed Mohammad Sorouraddin has received research grants from University of Tabriz.

Conflict of Interest

Saeed Mohammad Sorouraddin declares that he has no conflict of interest. Mir Ali Farajzadeh declares that he has no conflict of interest. Abdollah Hassanyani declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

References

  1. Alberts P, Stander MA, de Villiers A (2011) Development of a fast, sensitive and robust LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of natamycin in wine. S Afr J Enol Vitic 32:51–59Google Scholar
  2. Anthemidis AN, Ioannou KIG (2009) Recent developments in homogeneous and dispersive liquid-liquid extraction for inorganic elements determination. A review Talanta 80:413–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berijani S, Assadi Y, Anbia M, Milani Hosseini MR, Aghaee E (2006) Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection: very simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water. J Chromatogr A 1123:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bermejo-Barrera P, Aboal-Somoza M, Bermejo-Barrera A, Cervera ML, dela Guardia M (2001) Microwave-assisted distillation of iodine for the indirect atomic absorption spectrometric determination of iodide in milk samples. J Anal Atom Spectrom 16:382–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Capitan-Vallvey LF, Checa-Moreno R, Navas N, Checa-Moreno LF, Navas N (2000) Rapid ultraviolet spectrophotometric and liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of natamycin in lactoserum matrix. J AOAC Int 83:802–808Google Scholar
  6. Chen Y, Kong D, Liu L, Song S, Kuang H, Xu C (2015a) Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for natamycin residues in foods based on a specific monoclonal antibody. Anal Methods 7:3559–3565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen Y, Wang Y, Liu L, Wu X, Xu L, Kuang H, Li A, Xu C (2015b) A gold immunochromatographic assay for the rapid and simultaneous detection of fifteen β-lactams. Nanoscale 7:16381–16388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen Y, Kong D, Liu L, Song S, Kuang H, Xu C (2016) Development of an ELISA and immunochromatographic assay for tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline residues in milk and honey based on the class-specific monoclonal antibody. Food Anal Methods 9:905–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chhonker YS, Kumar D, Shrivastava P, Kumar D, Singh R, Chandasana H, Bhatta RS (2013) LC–MS/MS assay for the determination of natamycin in rabbit and human plasma: application to a pharmacokinetics and protein binding study. J Pharm Anal 3:144–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de Ruig WGJ, van Oostrom J, Leenheer K (1987) Spectrometric and liquid chromatographic determination of natamycin in cheese and cheese rind. J Assoc Off Ana Chem 70:944–948Google Scholar
  11. EFSA panel on food additives and nutrient sources added to food (2009) Scientific opinion on the use of natamycin (E235) as a food additive. EFSA J 7:1–25Google Scholar
  12. El-Diasty E, El-Kaseh R, Salem R (2008) The effect of natamycin on keeping quality and organoleptic characters of yoghurt. Arab J Biotech 12:41–48Google Scholar
  13. Fletouris DJ, Botsoglou NA, Mantis AJ (1995) Rapid spectrophotometric method for analyzing natamycin in cheese and cheese rind. J AOAC Int 78:1024–1029Google Scholar
  14. Gallo L, Jagus R (2006) Modelling Saccharomyces cerevisiae inactivation by natamycin in liquid cheese whey. Braz J Food Tech 9:311–316Google Scholar
  15. Gupta A, Sharma A, Mohan K, Gupta A (1999) Mycotic keratitis in non-steroid exposed vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Acta Ophthalmol Scan 77:229–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hanušová K, Šťastná M, Votavová L, Klaudisová K, Dobiáš J, Voldřich M, Marek M (2010) Polymer films releasing nisin and/or natamycin from polyvinyldichloride lacquer coating: nisin and natamycin migration, efficiency in cheese packaging. J Food Eng 99:491–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jeannot MA, Przyjazny A, Kokosa JM (2010) Single drop microextraction—development, applications and future trends. J Chromatogr A 1217:2326–2336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Koontz JL, Marcy JE, Barbeau WE, Duncan SE (2003) Stability of natamycin and its cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in aqueous solution. J Agric Food Chem 51:7111–7114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee J, Lee HK, Rasmussen KE, Pedersen-Bjergaard S (2008) Environmental and bioanalytical applications of hollow fiber membrane liquid-phase microextraction: a review. Anal Chim Acta 624:253–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Moreira de Oliveira T, Ferreira Soares N, Magela Pereira R, de Freitas FK (2007) Development and evaluation of antimicrobial natamycin-incorporated film in gorgonzola cheese conservation. Packag Technol Sci 20:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Noroozifar M, Khorasani-Motlagh M, Hosseini SN (2005) Flow injection analysis-flame atomic absorption spectrometry system for indirect determination of cyanide using cadmium carbonate as a new solid-phase reactor. Anal Chim Acta 528:269–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ojeda CB, Rojas FS (2009) Separation and preconcentration by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure: a review. Chromatographia 69:1–11Google Scholar
  23. Parliament EU, Council Directive No 95/2/EC of 20 February (1995) On food additives other than colours and sweeteners. Official Journal of the European Union L 061:1–40Google Scholar
  24. Paseiro-Cerrato R, Otero-Pazos P, Rodríguez-Bernaldo de Quirós A, Sendón R, Angulo I, Paseiro-Losad P (2013) Rapid method to determine natamycin by HPLC-DAD in food samples for compliance with EU food legislation. Food Control 33:262–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pintado CMBS, Ferreira MASS, Sousa I (2010) Control of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms from cheese surface by whey protein films containing malic acid, nisin and natamycin. Food Control 21:240–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Reps A, Jedrychowski L, Tomasik J, Wisniewska K (2002) Natamycin in ripening cheeses. Pakistan J Nut 1:243–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Scaccia S, Frangini S (2004) Sensitive assay for oxygen solubility in molten alkali metal carbonates by indirect flame atomic absorption spectrometric Cr (VI) determination. Talanta 64:791–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stark J (2000) Permitted preservatives—natamycin. In: Robinson RK, Batt CA, Patel PD (eds) Encyclopedia of food microbiology, vol 3. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 1776–1781Google Scholar
  29. Struyk AP, Hoette I, Drost G, Waisvisz JM, Van Eek T, Hoogerheide JC (1957-1958) Pimaricin, a new antifungal antibiotic. Antibiot Annu 5:878–885Google Scholar
  30. Tuinstra LG, Traaq WA (1982) Liquid chromatographic determination of natamycin in cheese at residue levels. J Assoc Off Ana Chem 65:820–822Google Scholar
  31. Türe H, Eroğlu E, Soyer F, Özen B (2008) Antifungal activity of biopolymers containing natamycin and rosemary extract against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium roquefortii. Int J Food Sci Tech 43:2026–2032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vosburgh WC, Cooper GR (1941) Complex ions. I. The identification of complex ions in solution by spectrophotometric measurements. J Am Chem Soc 63:437–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yebra MC (2000) Continuous automatic determinations of organic compounds by flow injection-atomic absorption spectrometry. TrAC-Trend Anal Chem 19:629–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yebra MC, Bollaín MH (2010) A simple indirect automatic method to determine total iodine in milk products by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 82:828–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yebra MC, Cespón RM (2000a) Flow injection atomic absorption spectrometric determination of iodide using an on-line preconcentration technique. Fresen J Anal Chem 367:24–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yebra MC, Cespón RM (2000b) Indirect automatic determination of iodide by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 405:191–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saeed Mohammad Sorouraddin
    • 1
  • Mir Ali Farajzadeh
    • 1
  • Abdollah Hassanyani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran

Personalised recommendations