Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 2311–2324 | Cite as

Comparison of Two Volatile Sampling Techniques Based on Different Loading Factors in Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds Released from Spoiled Raw Beef



Evaluation of meat volatiles is an increasing concern due to the development studies for spoilage sensors in order to inform consumers if meat spoiled or not. Since the reliable measuring of volatiles in headspace is important for designing a sensor, preconcentration techniques for meat matrix should be investigated. This study describes the effect of three sample amounts: total volume ratio (loading factors) with 0.025, 0.05, and 0.10 kg/L applied in two preconcentration sampling techniques: solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas flushing on Tenax with thermal desorption to explain the interactions and relationship between sample amount and extracted analytes for spoiled beef striploin. The ratio of the sample amount of beef meat in the chamber and the total volume of chamber is called as “loading factor”. The results showed that the volatile profiles did not vary significantly, but the levels were affected with the extraction technique and loading factor. The volatile organic compounds identified in the early stages of meat spoilage include alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and amine compounds. While amines were measured only with Tenax, ethyl acetate was detected only with SPME. The total peak area of volatiles with Tenax (~390 × 10−6 AU at 0.05 kg/L) were higher than SPME sampling (~290 × 10−6 AU at 0.05 kg/L) in each loading factor. Although optimum loading factor depended on the type of volatile, 0.05 kg/L loading factor resulted the most efficient extraction by the two preconcentration techniques for most of the volatiles generally.


Meat Spoilage Cold storage Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry Volatiles Preconcentration 



This study is achieved with the financial and infrastructural support of Arçelik A.S.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Author Aylin Met and Neşe Şahin Yeşilçubuk declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Engineering DepartmentIstanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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