In this paper, we describe ultrasonic assisted-dispersive solid phase extraction based on ion-imprinted polymer (UA-DSPE-IIP) nanoparticles for the selective extraction of lead ions. Ultrasound is a good and robust method to facilitate the extraction of the target ions in the sorption step and elution of the target ions in the desorption step. The ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles used in the UA-DSPE-IIP were prepared by precipitation polymerization technique. The ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles was synthesized using 2-vinylpyridine as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, 2,2′- azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator, 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol as the ligand, methanol/dimethyl sulfoxide as the solvent, and lead as the template ion, through precipitation polymerization technique. The IIP nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used for optimization of sorption and desorption steps in UA-DSPE-IIP. In the sorption step: pH of solution, IIP amount (mg), sonication time (min) for sorption and in the desorption step: concentration of eluent (mol L−1), volume of eluent (mL), and sonication time (s) for desorption was investigated and optimized by the Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions for the method were pH of solution: 7.5, sonication time for sorption 7.5 min, IIP amount 24 mg, type and concentration of eluent HCl 1.4 mol L−1, volume of eluent 2.1 mL, and sonication time for desorption 135 s. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection and relative standard deviation for the detection of lead ions by UA-DSPE-IIP was found to be 0.7 μg L−1 and <4%, respectively.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Research Council of Kermanshah University of Medical of Sciences for the financial support.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Mohammad Behbahani declares that he has no conflict of interest. Fariborz Omidi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Masoud Ghanbari Kakavandi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Masoud Ghanbari Kakavandi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ghasem Hesam declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
It is not applicable in this study.
Ansari F, Ghaedi M, Taghdiri M, Asfaram A (2016) Application of ZnO nanorods loaded on activated carbon for ultrasonic assisted dyes removal: experimental design and derivative spectrophotometry method. Ultrason Sonochem 33:197–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aladaghlo Z, Fakhari A, Behbahani M (2016) Solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction: a sample preparation method for trace detection of diazinon in urine and environmental water samples. J Chromatogr A 1462:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Asfaram A, Ghaedi M, Dashtian K (2017a) Rapid ultrasound-assisted magnetic microextraction of gallic acid from urine, plasma and water samples by HKUST-1-MOF-Fe3O4-GA-MIP-NPs: UV–Vis detection and optimization study. Ultrason Sonochem 34:561–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Asfaram A, Ghaedi M, Dashtian K (2017b) Ultrasound assisted combined molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of nicotinamide in human urine and milk samples: spectrophotometric determination and optimization study. Ultrason Sonochem 34:640–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Asfaram A, Ghaedi M, Hajati S, Goudarzi A, Dil EA (2017c) Screening and optimization of highly effective ultrasound-assisted simultaneous adsorption of cationic dyes onto Mn-doped Fe3O4-nanoparticle-loaded activated carbon. Ultrason Sonochem 34:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bagheri A, Ghaedi RM, Asfaram A, Bazrafshan AA, Jannesar R (2017) Comparative study on ultrasonic assisted adsorption of dyes from single system onto Fe 3O4 magnetite nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: experimental design methodology. Ultrason Sonochem 34:294–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Behbahani M, Abolhasani J, Amini MM, Sadeghi O, Omidi F, Bagheri A, Salarian M (2015a) Application of mercapto ordered carbohydrate-derived porous carbons for trace detection of cadmium and copper ions in agricultural products. Food Chem 173:1207–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Behbahani M, Bagheri A, Taghizadeh M, Salarian M, Sadeghi O, Adlnasab L, Jalali K (2013) Synthesis and characterisation of nano structure lead (II) ion-imprinted polymer as a new sorbent for selective extraction and preconcentration of ultra trace amounts of lead ions from vegetables, rice, and fish samples. Food Chem 138:2050–2056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Behbahani M, Ghareh Hassanlou P, Amini MM, Omidi F, Esrafili A, Farzadkia M, Bagheri A (2015b) Application of solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction as a new, fast, simple and reliable preconcentration and trace detection of lead and cadmium ions in fruit and water samples. Food Chem 187:82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Behbahani M, Hassanlou PG, Amini MM, Moazami HR, Abandansari HS, Bagheri A, Zadeh SH (2015c) Selective solid-phase extraction and trace monitoring of lead ions in food and water samples using new lead-imprinted polymer nanoparticles. Food Anal Methods 8(3):558–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Behbahani M, Salimi S, Abandansari HS, Omidi F, Salarian M, Esrafili A (2015d) Application of a tailor-made polymer as a selective and sensitive colorimetric sensor for reliable detection of trace levels of uranyl ions in complex matrices. RSC Adv 5(74):59912–59920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cacho C, Turiel E, Martin-Esteban A, Pérez-Conde C, Cámara C (2004) Characterisation and quality assessment of binding sites on a propazine-imprinted polymer prepared by precipitation polymerisation. J Chromatogr B 802(2):347–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dashamiri S, Ghaedi M, Asfaram A, Zare F, Wang S (2017) Multi-response optimization of ultrasound assisted competitive adsorption of dyes onto Cu (OH) 2-nanoparticle loaded activated carbon: central composite design. Ultrason Sonochem 34:343–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Divrikli U, Kartal AA, Soylak M, Elci L (2007) Preconcentration of Pb (II), Cr (III), Cu (II), Ni (II) and Cd (II) ions in environmental samples by membrane filtration prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. J Hazard Mater 145(3):459–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ebrahimzadeh H, Behbahani M (2013) A novel lead imprinted polymer as the selective solid phase for extraction and trace detection of lead ions by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry: synthesis, characterization and analytical application. Arab J Chem. doi:10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.09.017Google Scholar
Ebrahimzadeh H, Behbahani M, Yamini Y, Adlnasab L, Asgharinezhad AA (2013) Optimization of Cu (II)-ion imprinted nanoparticles for trace monitoring of copper in water and fish samples using a Box–Behnken design. React Funct Polym 73(1):23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elci L, Soylak M, Özcan B (2003) Coprecipitation of Cu (II), Ni (II), Fe (III), Cd (II), Pb (II), and Co (II) in wastewater, sediment, and metallic zinc samples with HMDTC–HMA for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination. Anal letters 36(5):987–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Esen C, Andac M, Bereli N, Say R, Henden E, Denizli A (2009) Highly selective ion-imprinted particles for solid-phase extraction of Pb 2+ ions. Mater Sci Eng C 29(8):2464–2470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghaedi M, Noormohamadi HR, Asfaram A, Montazerozohori M, Tashkhourian J, Soylak M (2016) Modification of platinum nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon and activated carbon with a new chelating agent for solid phase extraction of some metal ions. J Mol Liq 221:748–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghorbani-Kalhor E, Behbahani M, Abolhasani J (2015) Application of ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles for selective trace determination of palladium ions in food and environmental samples with the aid of experimental design methodology. Food Anal Methods 8(7):1746–1757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giokas D, Paleologos E, Tzouwara-Karayanni S, Karayannis M (2001) Single-sample cloud point determination of iron, cobalt and nickel by flow injection analysis flame atomic absorption spectrometry—application to real samples and certified reference materials. J Anal At Spectrom 16(5):521–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hu Q, Yang G, Yang J, Yin J (2002) Study on determination of iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc and manganese in drinking water by solid-phase extraction and RP-HPLC with 2-(2-quinolinylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol as precolumn derivatizing reagent. J Environ Monitor 4(6):956–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jamil M, Zia MS, Qasim M (2010) Contamination of agro-ecosystem and human health hazards from wastewater used for irrigation. J Chem Soc Pak 32(3):370–378Google Scholar
Jia K, Pan B, Lv L, Zhang Q, Wang X, Pan B, Zhang W (2009) Impregnating titanium phosphate nanoparticles onto a porous cation exchanger for enhanced lead removal from waters. J Colloid Interface Sci 331(2):453–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khan S, Cao Q, Zheng Y, Huang Y, Zhu Y (2008) Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing. China Environ Pollut 152(3):686–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kubáň P, Guchardi R, Hauser PC (2005) Trace-metal analysis with separation methods. Trends Anal Chem 24(3):192–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu Y, Liu Z, Wang Y, Dai J, Gao J, Xie J, Yan Y (2011) A surface ion-imprinted mesoporous sorbent for separation and determination of Pb (II) ion by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Microchim Acta 172(3–4):309–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayer M, Wilson D (1998) Health and safety—the downward trend in lead levels. J Power Sources 73(1):17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Narin I, Surme Y, Bercin E, Soylak M (2007) SP70-α-benzoin oxime chelating resin for preconcentration–separation of Pb (II), Cd (II), Co (II) and Cr (III) in environmental samples. J Hazard Mater 145(1):113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Omidi F, Behbahani M, Bojdi MK, Shahtaheri SJ (2015) Solid phase extraction and trace monitoring of cadmium ions in environmental water and food samples based on modified magnetic nanoporous silica. J Magn Magn Mater 395:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stalikas C, Fiamegos Y, Sakkas V, Albanis T (2009) Developments on chemometric approaches to optimize and evaluate microextraction. J Chromatogr A 1216(2):175–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tamayo F, Casillas J, Martin-Esteban A (2003) Highly selective fenuron-imprinted polymer with a homogeneous binding site distribution prepared by precipitation polymerisation and its application to the clean-up of fenuron in plant samples. Anal Chim Acta 482(2):165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang G, Fen W, Lei C, Xiao W, Sun H (2009) Study on solid phase extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead with MCI GEL CHP 20Y as sorbent. J Hazard Mater 162(1):44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yılmaz E, Soylak M (2016) Preparation and characterization of magnetic carboxylated nanodiamonds for vortex-assisted magnetic solid-phase extraction of ziram in food and water samples. Talanta 158:152–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhu X, Cui Y, Chang X, Zou X, Li Z (2009) Selective solid-phase extraction of lead (II) from biological and natural water samples using surface-grafted lead (II)-imprinted polymers. Microchim Acta 164(1–2):125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar