Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 2454–2466 | Cite as

Application of Ultrasonic Assisted-Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction Based on Ion-Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles for Preconcentration and Trace Determination of Lead Ions in Food and Water Samples

  • Masoud Ghanbari Kakavandi
  • Mohammad Behbahani
  • Fariborz Omidi
  • Ghasem Hesam


In this paper, we describe ultrasonic assisted-dispersive solid phase extraction based on ion-imprinted polymer (UA-DSPE-IIP) nanoparticles for the selective extraction of lead ions. Ultrasound is a good and robust method to facilitate the extraction of the target ions in the sorption step and elution of the target ions in the desorption step. The ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles used in the UA-DSPE-IIP were prepared by precipitation polymerization technique. The ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles was synthesized using 2-vinylpyridine as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, 2,2′- azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator, 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol as the ligand, methanol/dimethyl sulfoxide as the solvent, and lead as the template ion, through precipitation polymerization technique. The IIP nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used for optimization of sorption and desorption steps in UA-DSPE-IIP. In the sorption step: pH of solution, IIP amount (mg), sonication time (min) for sorption and in the desorption step: concentration of eluent (mol L−1), volume of eluent (mL), and sonication time (s) for desorption was investigated and optimized by the Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions for the method were pH of solution: 7.5, sonication time for sorption 7.5 min, IIP amount 24 mg, type and concentration of eluent HCl 1.4 mol L−1, volume of eluent 2.1 mL, and sonication time for desorption 135 s. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection and relative standard deviation for the detection of lead ions by UA-DSPE-IIP was found to be 0.7 μg L−1 and <4%, respectively.


Ultrasonic assisted-dispersive solid phase extraction Ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles Box-Behnken design Lead ions 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the Research Council of Kermanshah University of Medical of Sciences for the financial support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Mohammad Behbahani declares that he has no conflict of interest. Fariborz Omidi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Masoud Ghanbari Kakavandi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Masoud Ghanbari Kakavandi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ghasem Hesam declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

It is not applicable in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masoud Ghanbari Kakavandi
    • 1
  • Mohammad Behbahani
    • 2
  • Fariborz Omidi
    • 3
  • Ghasem Hesam
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Public HealthKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  2. 2.Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH)Kermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  3. 3.Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public HealthShahroud University of Medical SciencesShahroudIran

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