Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 2481–2489 | Cite as

Evaluation and Optimization of a Superior Extraction Method for the Characterization of the Volatile Profile of Black Tea by HS-SPME/GC-MS

  • Lijuan Ma
  • Yang Qiao
  • Liping Du
  • Yunfei Li
  • Shiyong Huang
  • Fei Liu
  • Dongguang Xiao


A novel method, using combined temperatures in a single headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure, was proposed in this research to extract the volatile compounds when analyzing the volatile profile of black tea by GC-MS. Parameters that influenced the extraction were optimized, and the optimal conditions for the proposed method were as follows: the saturation of sodium chloride of 100%, the ratio of tea to water of 1:5.92, and a total extraction time of 60 min comprising 11.9 min at 30 °C, 17.4 min at 50 °C, and 30.7 min at 70 °C. Under these optimal conditions, the total peak area of the volatile compounds and the number of the identified compounds using the proposed method were both more than those by using the conventional method, which indicated that temperature affects the extraction efficiency of compounds with different volatilities. Using combined temperatures in a single HS-SPME procedure could obtain more information including contents and number of the volatile compounds identified in the determination of volatile compounds with different volatilities of black tea and other complex substrates.


Black tea HS-SPME Combined temperatures Volatile compounds Optimization 



This work was supported by the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (31671847) and the program the Cheung Kong Scholars and Innovative Research Team Program in University (IRT1166).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Lijuan Ma declares that she has no conflict of interest. Yang Qiao declares that she has no conflict of interest. Liping Du declares that she has no conflict of interest. Yunfei Li declares that he has no conflict of interest. Shiyong Huang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Fei Liu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dongguang Xiao declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethics Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Consent for Publication

Publication has been approved by all individual participants.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lijuan Ma
    • 1
  • Yang Qiao
    • 1
  • Liping Du
    • 1
  • Yunfei Li
    • 1
  • Shiyong Huang
    • 1
  • Fei Liu
    • 1
  • Dongguang Xiao
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology Ministry of Education, Tianjin Industrial Microbiology Key Laboratory, College of BiotechnologyTianjin University of Science and TechnologyTianjinPeople’s Republic of China

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