Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 2132–2142 | Cite as

PAH Residues in Honey by Ultrasound-Vortex-Assisted Liquid-Liquid Micro-Extraction Followed by GC-FID/IT-MS

  • Mario Vincenzo Russo
  • Pasquale Avino
  • Ivan Notardonato


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) residue concentrations have been measured in honey samples collected on the Italian market. An ultrasound-vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (UVALLME) procedure coupled with a gas chromatography flame ionization detector or ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT/MS) is proposed for fast analysis of fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzoperylene. Different analytical parameters such as extraction solvent and relative volume, best extraction time, pH, NaCl concentration, and reproducibility at low and high concentrations were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the recoveries range from 95 to 107% and correlation coefficients range from 0.893 to 0.995 whereas the limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) are ≥36 and ≥41 ng g−1 in GC-FID and 0.030 and 0.069 ng g−1 in GC-IT/MS, respectively. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs), is ≤7.4 and ≤5.2% for low and high PAH concentration levels, respectively. The whole proposed methodology, demonstrated to be simple, reproducible, and sensible, has been applied to the determination of trace PAHs in five honey samples.


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Honey Contaminant DLLME GC-IT/MS 


Compliance with Ethical Standards


The study was performed with no funds.

Conflict of Interest

Mario Vincenzo Russo declares that he has no conflict of interest. Pasquale Avino declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ivan Notardonato declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects, and so, the ethical approval is not necessary and not required.

Informed Consent

Not applicable. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Supplementary material

12161_2016_783_MOESM1_ESM.docx (24 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 24 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Vincenzo Russo
    • 1
  • Pasquale Avino
    • 2
  • Ivan Notardonato
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento Agricoltura, Ambiente e AlimentiUniversità del MoliseCampobasso,Italy
  2. 2.DIT, INAIL Research AreaRomeItaly

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