Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 2467–2480 | Cite as

Oil Quality Control of Culinary Oils Subjected to Deep-Fat Frying Based on NMR and EPR Spectroscopy

  • David Castejón
  • Antonio Herrera
  • Ángeles Heras
  • Isabel Cambero
  • Inmaculada Mateos-Aparicio


The culinary oils, sunflower and olive, and the oil from the cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) were submitted to deep-fat frying during 36 h. The heterospectroscopy analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) allowed to control oil quality through the monitor of (1) the percentage of fatty acid types (increase of saturated and decrease of polyunsaturated fatty acids), (2) the new compounds formed (aldehydes and peroxides), and (3) the oil oxidative stability during the deep-fat frying. The aldehyde content was much higher in sunflower and cynara oils than in olive; however, the epoxides increased more in this oil. Oxidative stability measured by EPR was correlated (p < 0.05) with the aldehyde formation measured by NMR. The multivariate analysis of the NMR data allowed classifying the oils depending on (a) the oxidation degree (PC1) and (b) the fatty acid composition (PC2). Moreover, the favorable behavior of cynara oil suggests the potential use as frying edible oil.


Edible oils Cardoon Deep-fat frying NMR EPR 



The authors acknowledge the Research Support Centre of NMR and EPR (Universidad Complutense de Madrid) for the cooperative collaboration.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


This work was supported by Projects AGL2010-19158 and CTQ2010-14936 (Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, MICINN) and S2009/ENE-1660 (Comunidad de Madrid, CAM, and Fondo Social Europeo).

Conflict of Interest

David Castejón declares that he has no conflict of interest. Antonio Herrera declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ángeles Heras declares that she has no conflict of interest. M. Isabel Cambero declares that she has no conflict of interest. Inmaculada Mateos-Aparicio declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

Supplementary material

12161_2016_778_MOESM1_ESM.docx (177 kb)
ESM 1 The Table S1 includes the PUFA, MUFA and SFA values and standard deviations obtained from 6 times deep-frying fat procedure evaluated (0, 1, 6, 12, 18 and 36 h) in the three oils analyzed (olive, cynara and sunflower). Fig. S1 is the expanded region of 1H-1H COZY spectrum of cynara oil that shows the correlations between the CLA system (5.39; 5.65; 5.96 and 6.47 ppm). Fig. S2 shows the expanded region (9.85 to 9.40 ppm) of 1H–NMR spectra of olive and cynara oils and the corresponding aldehyde protons. (DOCX 176 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Castejón
    • 1
  • Antonio Herrera
    • 2
  • Ángeles Heras
    • 3
  • Isabel Cambero
    • 4
  • Inmaculada Mateos-Aparicio
    • 5
  1. 1.Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín ElectrónicoUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de QuímicasUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain
  3. 3.Instituto de Estudios Biofuncionales, Departamento de Química-Física IIUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain
  4. 4.Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de VeterinariaUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain
  5. 5.Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología II, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain

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