Oil Quality Control of Culinary Oils Subjected to Deep-Fat Frying Based on NMR and EPR Spectroscopy
- 290 Downloads
The culinary oils, sunflower and olive, and the oil from the cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) were submitted to deep-fat frying during 36 h. The heterospectroscopy analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) allowed to control oil quality through the monitor of (1) the percentage of fatty acid types (increase of saturated and decrease of polyunsaturated fatty acids), (2) the new compounds formed (aldehydes and peroxides), and (3) the oil oxidative stability during the deep-fat frying. The aldehyde content was much higher in sunflower and cynara oils than in olive; however, the epoxides increased more in this oil. Oxidative stability measured by EPR was correlated (p < 0.05) with the aldehyde formation measured by NMR. The multivariate analysis of the NMR data allowed classifying the oils depending on (a) the oxidation degree (PC1) and (b) the fatty acid composition (PC2). Moreover, the favorable behavior of cynara oil suggests the potential use as frying edible oil.
KeywordsEdible oils Cardoon Deep-fat frying NMR EPR
The authors acknowledge the Research Support Centre of NMR and EPR (Universidad Complutense de Madrid) for the cooperative collaboration.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This work was supported by Projects AGL2010-19158 and CTQ2010-14936 (Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, MICINN) and S2009/ENE-1660 (Comunidad de Madrid, CAM, and Fondo Social Europeo).
Conflict of Interest
David Castejón declares that he has no conflict of interest. Antonio Herrera declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ángeles Heras declares that she has no conflict of interest. M. Isabel Cambero declares that she has no conflict of interest. Inmaculada Mateos-Aparicio declares that she has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
- Asuquo J, Anusiem A, Etim E (2012) Extraction and characterization of rubber seed oil. Int J Modern Chem 1:109–115Google Scholar
- Christaki E, Bonos E, Florou-Paneri P (2012) Nutritional and functional properties of Cynara crops (Globe Artichoke and Cardoon) and their potential application: a review. Int J Appl Sci Technol 2(2):64–70Google Scholar
- Dobarganes M, Pérez-Camino M (1988) Fatty acid composition: a useful tool for the determination of alteration level in heated fats. Revue Francaise des Corps Gras 35:67–70Google Scholar
- Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente (Magrama) (2014) Anuario de Estadística (Statistical Year book from Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Enviroment). Availablefrom: http://www.magrama.gob.es/estadistica/pags/anuario/2013/AE_2013_13_06_13_01.pdf. Accessed 14 Dec 2016.
- Skiera C, Steliopoulos P, Kuballa T, Holzgrabe U, Diehl B (2012) 1H-NMR spectroscopy as a new tool in the assessment of the oxidative state in edible oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 89(8):1383–1391Google Scholar