Combination of NMR and MRI Techniques for Non-invasive Assessment of Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicas) Tenderization During Low-Temperature Heating Process
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The purpose of this study was to develop and test the combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to assess the proton changes of sea cucumber body wall during low-temperature heating process. NMR relaxometry and MRI measurements indicated a significant proton change in the internal structure for sea cucumber body wall when the heating temperature increased from 45 to 55 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the denaturation temperature of sea cucumber body wall was in the range of 45–55 °C with an endothermic peak at 51 °C, which is in accordance with the result observed in NMR and MRI. Rheological study showed similar trend to the DSC thermogram. The band change in amide I region of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated the decrease in α-helix content and possible formation of other secondary structures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) further confirmed that the low-temperature heating did induce microstructure changes. The analysis of the Ringerʼs soluble fraction (RSF), enzyme-labile fraction (ELF), and total unaltered fraction (TUF) for sea cucumber body wall during low-temperature heating provided more detailed information on the cause of structure change observed in NMR and MRI. The NMR parameters were highly correlated with the rheology storage modulus (G′), relative enzymatic assay parameters, RSF, ELF, and TUF. All these results demonstrated that it could be possible to use NMR and MRI to assess sea cucumber tenderization during low-temperature heating process.
KeywordsSea cucumber Low-field NMR MRI Low-temperature heating Collagen fiber Tenderization
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (31401520, 31401519), the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project of China (2013YQ17046307), the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of China in 12th Five-Year Plan (2014BAD04B09), the Public Science and Technology Research Funds Project of Ocean (201505029), and Cultivation Plan for Youth Agricultural Science and Technology Innovative Talents of Liaoning Province (2015002).
Conflicts of Interest
Xiuping Dong declares that he has no conflict of interest. Yan Li declares that he has no conflict of interest. Yong Li declares that he has no conflict of interest. Liang Song declares that he has no conflict of interest. Shasha Cheng declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dongmei Li declares that he has no conflict of interest. Wei-bei Zhu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dayong Zhou declares that he has no conflict of interest. Mingqian Tan declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or laboratory animals performed by any of the authors.
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