Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 2302–2310 | Cite as

Ground Roast Coffee: Review of Analytical Strategies to Estimate Geographic Origin, Species Authenticity and Adulteration by Dilution

  • D. Thorburn BurnsEmail author
  • L. Tweed
  • M. J. Walker


Methods for the determination of the most commonly found materials used to adulterate coffee as diluents and to establish the geographic and genotypic origin of beans are reviewed. Suggestions are made as to how to start to authenticate, or otherwise, the label claims for a given sample of roast ground coffee.


Coffee Geographic origin Adulteration Species authenticity 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

The statements below are declared by Duncan Thorburn Burns on behalf of all the authors of this review.


This study was personally funded by the authors.

Conflict of Interest

D. Thorburn Burns declares that he has no conflict of interest. L. Tweed declares that she has no conflict of interest. M. J. Walker declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.



Artificial neural network


Circular dichroism spectroscopy


Canonical discriminant analysis


Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy


Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry


High performance anion-exchange chromatography (often applied with pulsed amperometric detection)


Linear discriminant analysis


Neutron activation analysis


Orthogonal projections to latent structures, a linear regression method


Orthogonal wavelet correction


Pulsed amperometric detection


Principle component analysis


Polymerase chain reaction


Partial least squares–discriminant analysis


Proton transfer reaction–mass spectrometry


Proton transfer reaction–time of flight mass spectrometry


Successive projections algorithm linear discriminant analysis


Solid-phase microextraction


Switching reagent ion system


Ultra-performance liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Institute for Global Food SecurityThe Queen’s University of BelfastBelfastUK
  2. 2.Government Chemist Programme, LGCMiddlesexUK

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