Advertisement

Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 970–979 | Cite as

A Simple and Rapid Extraction Method to Evaluate the Fatty Acid Composition and Nutritional Value of Goji Berry Lipid

  • F. Blasi
  • D. MontesanoEmail author
  • M. S. Simonetti
  • L. Cossignani
Article

Abstract

In this paper, the results of a study on lipid fraction from goji berries are reported. A rapid and simple method based on magnetic stirring with chloroform/methanol mixture and final clean-up with deionized water was developed, which avoided the presence of polar substances in the final extract. The proposed method was compared with conventional (Folch and Soxhlet methods) and unconventional (hexane/2-propanol or methyl-tert-butyl ether extraction) procedures. Sixteen commercial goji samples have been extracted by the developed method; then, the fatty acid composition was determined by high-resolution gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID) analysis of derivatized samples. Generally, the results obtained underlined the important role of goji berry as a natural source of unsaturated fatty acids (78.0–86.0 %) with a high content of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 48.2–60.2 %), a satisfactory n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, and a good PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratio.

Keywords

Goji berry Lipid extraction Clean-up HRGC Fatty acid composition 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Francesca Blasi declares that she has no conflict of interest. Domenico Montesano declares that he has no conflict of interest. Maria Stella Simonetti declares that she has no conflict of interest. Lina Cossignani declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

References

  1. Altintas A, Kosar M, Kirimer N, Baser KHC, Demirci B (2006) Composition of the essential oils of Lycium barbarum and L. ruthenicum fruits. Chem Nat Comp 42:24–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amagase H, Farnsworth NR (2011) A review of botanical characteristics, phytochemistry, clinical relevance in efficacy and safety of Lycium barbarum fruit (goji). Food Res Inter 44:1702–1717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amol SS, Kallangouda AR (2011) Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties of Thespesia populnea Soland ex. Correa seed extracts and its fractions in animal models. J Ethnopharmacol 137:1504–1509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. AOAC (1995) Official methods of analysis, 16th edn. AOAC International, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  5. Blasi F, Montesano D, De Angelis M, Maurizi A, Ventura F, Cossignani L, Simonetti MS, Damiani P (2008) Results of stereospecific analysis of triacylglycerol fraction from donkey, cow, ewe, goat and buffalo milk. J Food Comp Anal 21:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boulila A, Bejaoui A (2015) Lycium intricatum Boiss.: an unexploted and rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, 4-desmethylsterols and other valuable phytochemicals. Lipids Health. doi: 10.1186/s12944-015-0055-9 Google Scholar
  7. Caprioli G, Giusti F, Ballini R, Sagratini G, Vila-Donat P, Vittori S, Fiorini D (2016) Lipid nutritional value of legumes: evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition. Food Chem 192:965–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Christie WW (2003) Lipid Analysis, 3rd edn. The Oily Press, BridgwaterGoogle Scholar
  9. Chung M, Nagella P, Ahn YS, Kim SJ, Ahmad A (2011) Composition of the essential oil and petroleum ether extract of Lycium chinense Miller fruits and antioxidant activity of its several extracts. J Med Plants Res 5:5973–5981Google Scholar
  10. Donno D, Beccaro GL, Mellano MG, Cerutti AK, Bounous G (2015) Goji berry fruit (Lycium spp.): antioxidant compound fingerprint and bioactivity evaluation. J Funct Foods 18(Part B):1070–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Endes Z, Uslu N, Özcan MM, Er F (2015) Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid composition and mineral contents of goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit. J Agroaliment Process Technol 21:36–40Google Scholar
  12. FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations and World Health Organization) (2010) Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition. Report of an expert consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 91, RomeGoogle Scholar
  13. Folch JB, Lees M, Sloane Stanley GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226:497–509Google Scholar
  14. Forino M, Tartaglione L, Dell’Aversano C, Ciminiello P (2016) NMR-based identification of the phenolic profile of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries). Isolation and structural determination of a novel N-feruloyl tyramine dimer as the most abundant antioxidant polyphenol of goji berries. Food Chem 194:1254–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gan L, Zhang SH, Yang XL, HB X (2004) Immunomodulation and antitumor activity by a polysaccharide-protein complex from Lycium barbarum. Int Immunopharmacol 4:563–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gao Z, Ali Z, Khan IA (2008) Glycerogalactolipids from the fruit of Lycium barbarum. Phytochem 69:2856–2861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guoliang L, Junyou S, Yourui S, Zhiwei S, Lian X, Jie Z, Jinmao Y, Yongjun L (2011) Supercritical CO2 cell breaking extraction of Lycium barbarum seed oil and determination of its chemical composition by HPLC/APCI/MS and antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Sci Technol 44:1172–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Inbaraj BS, Lu H, Hung CF, WB W, Lin CL, Chen BH (2008) Determination of carotenoids and their esters in fruits of Lycium barbarum Linnaeus by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal 47:812–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Karioti A, Bergonzi MC, Vincieri FF, Bilia AR (2014) Validated method for the analysis of goji berry, a rich source of zeaxanthin dipalmitate. J Agric Food Chem 62:12529–12535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li G, You J, Suo Y, Song C, Sun Z, Xia L, Zhao H, Shi J (2011) A developed pre-column derivatization method for the determination of free fatty acids in edible oils by reversed-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection and its application to Lycium barbarum seed oil. Food Chem 125:1365–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liang B, Jin M, Liu H (2011) Water-soluble polysaccharide from dried Lycium barbarum fruits: isolation, structural features and antioxidant activity. Carbohyd Polym 83:1947–1951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lim TK (ed) (2013) Lycium barbarum. In: Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants: volume 6, fruits. Springer, London, 240–266Google Scholar
  23. Matyash V, Liebisch G, Kurzchalia TV, Shevchenko A, Schwudke D (2008) Lipid extraction by methyl-tert-butyl ether for high-throughput lipidomics. J Lipid Res 49:1137–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mikulic-Petkovsek M, Schmitzer V, Slatnar A, Stampar F, Veberic R (2012) Composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolics in 25 wild or cultivated berry species. J Food Sci 77:1064–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Montesano D, Cossignani L, Giua L, Urbani E, Simonetti MS, Blasi F (2016) A simple HPLC-ELSD method for sugar analysis in goji berry. J Chem Article ID 6271808. doi: 10.1155/2016/6271808
  26. Nguyen TT, Zhang W, Barber RA, Su P, He S (2015) Significant enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the lipids extracted by supercritical CO2 from the livers of Australian rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii). J Agric Food Chem 63:4621–4628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Potterat O (2010) Goji (Lycium barbarum and L. chinense): phytochemistry, pharmacology and safety in the perspective of traditional uses and recent popularity. Planta Med 76:7–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ranjan A, Patil C, Moholkar VS (2010) Mechanistic assessment of microalgal lipid extraction. Ind Eng Chem Res 49:2979–2985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ryan E, Galvin K, O’Connor TP, Maguire AR, O’Brien NM (2007) Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes. Plant Food Hum Nutr 62:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Toyoda-Ono Y, Maeda M, Nakao M, Yoshimura M, Sugiura-Tomimori N, Fukami H (2004) 2-O-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl)ascorbic acid, a novel ascorbic acid analogue isolated from Lycium fruit. J Agric Food Chem 52:2092–2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ulbricht TLV, Southgate DAT (1991) Coronary heart disease. Seven dietary factors. Lancet 338:985–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wu HT, He XJ, Hong YK, Ma T, Xu YP, Li HH (2010) Chemical characterization of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and its inhibition against liver oxidative injury of high-fat mice. Int J Biol Macromol 46:540–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yuan Y, Wang YB, Jiang Y, Prasad KN, Yang J, Qua H, Wang Y, Jia Y, Mo H, Yang B (2016) Structure identification of a polysaccharide purified from Lycium barbarium fruit. Int J Biol Macromol 82:696–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Blasi
    • 1
  • D. Montesano
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. S. Simonetti
    • 1
  • L. Cossignani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Section of Food Science and NutritionUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly

Personalised recommendations