Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe Method Followed by Ionic Liquid-Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Trace Amount of Bisphenol A in Canned Foods
- 517 Downloads
Combination of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method with ionic liquid-dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (QuEChERS-IL-DLLME) was developed as an extraction methodology to determine bisphenol A (BPA) in various canned food samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The potential variables affecting the microextraction recovery were considered in the optimization process. Obtained results showed that 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C6mim][Tf2N]) is a better extraction solvent compared with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C6mim][PF6]) and is more compatible with RP-HPLC. Under the optimum conditions, the method yielded a linear calibration curve ranging from 1.0 to 500 μL−1 with a determination coefficient (R 2) of 0.9993. Enrichment factor for BPA was 98, and limit of detection was 0.1 μg L−1. The relative standard deviation percent (RSD%) for the intra-day and inter-day extraction and determination at 2.0, 20, and 200 μg L−1 levels of BPA was less than 7.2 % (n = 6) and 9.7 % (n = 6), respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction, cleanup, preconcentration, and determination of the BPA in different canned food samples, and satisfactory results were obtained (relative recovery ≥90 %).
KeywordsBisphenol A QuEChERS method Ionic liquid-dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction Canned foods High-performance liquid chromatography
This study was funded by Standard Research Institute of Iran (grant number 45565).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Mohammad Faraji declares that he has no conflict of interest. Mahsa Noorani declares that she has no conflict of interest. Banafshe Nasiri Sahneh declares that she has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies on human or animal subjects.
- Anastassiades M, Lehotay SJ, Stajnbaher D, Schenck FJ (2003) Fast and easy multiresidue method employing acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and “dispersive solid-phase extraction” for the determination of pesticide residues in produce. J AOAC Int 86:412–431Google Scholar
- Biparva P, Ehsani M, Hadjmohammadi MR (2012) Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction using extraction solvents lighter than water combined with high performance liquid chromatography for determination of synthetic antioxidants in fruit juice samples. J Food Compos Anal 27:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Commission Regulation EU 10/2011 of 14 January 2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food. Chapter 13, 045:42–130Google Scholar
- Cunha SC, Almeida C, Mendes E, Fernandes JO (2011) Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol B in beverages and powdered infant formula by dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction and heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Food Add Contam Part A 28:513–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- European Food Safety Authority—EFSA (2006) Opinion of the scientific panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane. EFSA J 428:1–6Google Scholar
- Farajzadeh MA, Khorram P, Alizadeh Nabil AA (2014) Solid-based disperser liquid-liquid microextraction for the preconcentration of phthalate esters and di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection or mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci 37:1177–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Farajzadeh MA, Abbaspour M, Afshar Mogaddam MR, Ghorbanpour H (2015) Determination of some synthetic phenolic antioxidants and bisphenol A in honey using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Food Anal Methods 8:2035–2043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rai S, Singh AK, Srivastava A, Yadav S, Siddiqui MH, Reddy Mudiam MK (2016) Comparative evaluation of QuEChERS method coupled to DLLME extraction for the analysis of multiresidue pesticides in vegetables and fruits by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Food Anal Methods 9(9):2656–2669Google Scholar
- Rezaee M, Yamini Y, Shariati S, Esrafili A, Shamsipur M (2009) Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-UV detection as a very simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of bisphenol A in water samples. J Chromatogr A 1216:1511–1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sadeghi M, Nematifar Z, Fattahi N, Pirsaheb M, Shamsipur M (2016) Determination of bisphenol A in food and environmental samples using combined solid-phase extraction-dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic drop followed by HPLC. Food Anal Methods 9(6):1814–1824Google Scholar
- Safe SH (2000) Endocrine disruptors and human health—is there a problem? An update Environ Health Perspect 108:487–493Google Scholar
- Saleh A, Yamini Y, Faraji M, Rezaee M, Ghambarian M (2009) Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction method based on applying low density organic solvents followed by gas chromatography analysis for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. J Chromatogr A 1216:6673–6679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shao B, Han H, Tu X, Huang L (2007) Analysis of alkylphenol and bisphenol A in eggs and milk by matrix solid phase dispersion extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 850:412–416Google Scholar
- Tai Z, Li Y, Liu M, Hu X, Yang Y, Qin B (2014) Determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol AF in vinegar samples by two-component mixed ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography. J Chem Soc Pak 36:63–67Google Scholar
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration-USFDA (2010) Bisphenol A (BPA): use in food contact application. 2014 Updated Review of Literature and Data on Bisphenol A, pp 120–129Google Scholar
- Wang S, Liu C, Yang S, Liu F et al (2013) Ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction following high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of fungicides in fruit juices. Food Anal Methods 6:481. doi: 10.1007/s12161-012-9402-x