Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 9, Issue 8, pp 2152–2160 | Cite as

Large-Volume Sample Staking of Rice Polyphenols Prior to Their Determination by Non-aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis

  • Sajida Parveen
  • Saima Q. MemonEmail author
  • Ali N. Siyal
  • Najma Memon
  • Muhammad Y. Khuhawar


A rapid non-aqueous capillary electrophoretic (NACE) method for the separation of (−)-epicatechin (EPI), (+)-catechin (−CAT), kaempferol (KAE), quercetin (QUR), naringanin (NAR), ferulic acid (FA), and p-coumaric acid (p-CA) has been developed and applied to the determination of these compounds in different rice varieties. All seven compounds were separated on capillary of 50 μm × 68 cm (60-cm effective length) using 20 mmol L−1 borate buffer of pH 9.0 and 5 % acetonitrile in methanol. Large-volume sample stacking (LVSS) technique was optimized and used to preconcentrate non-detectable polyphenols of white polished rice. Rice extracts were concentrated on-line by LVSS prior to separation by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis. An improvement of 10–55 times in detectability was achieved with injection at 50 mbar for 30 s followed by voltage inversion (−20 kV) for 5 s. Linear calibration range of 1–300 μg L−1 and 0.01–60 μg L−1 was observed for NACE and NACE-LVSS method respectively, with the detection limit of 0.33–2.0 and 0.006–0.19 μg L−1. Good reproducibility with standard deviations of less than 5 % was achieved. Polyphenol contents of different rice varieties were determined using developed method.


Polyphenol separation Antioxidants Rice Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis Large-volume sample staking 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Authors declare no conflict of interest with any party.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sajida Parveen
    • 1
  • Saima Q. Memon
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ali N. Siyal
    • 2
  • Najma Memon
    • 3
  • Muhammad Y. Khuhawar
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Advance Research Studies in Chemical SciencesUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan
  2. 2.M. A. Kazi Institute of ChemistryUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan
  3. 3.National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, JamshoroUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan

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