Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 9, Issue 8, pp 2161–2173 | Cite as

Classification of Honey According to Geographical and Botanical Origins and Detection of Its Adulteration Using Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

  • Madiha Bougrini
  • Khalid Tahri
  • Tarik Saidi
  • Nadia El Alami El Hassani
  • Benachir Bouchikhi
  • Nezha El BariEmail author


Main possible honey fraud is the addition of various sugar syrups. But, there are also other types of fraud, such as deception on the geographical and/or botanical origin product. Providing a product of the hive with full authenticity is therefore crucial for the preservation of beekeeping. In this pursuit, voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue) was employed to classify honey samples from different geographical and botanical origins. Furthermore, VE-tongue was used to detect adulterants such as glucose syrup (GS) and saccharose syrup (SS) in honey. The data obtained were analyzed by three-pattern recognition techniques: principal component analysis (PCA), support vector machines (SVMs), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). These methods enabled the classification of 18 honeys of different geographical origins and 7 honeys of different botanical origins. Excellent results were obtained also in the detection of adulterated honey. Therefore, this simple method based on VE-tongue could be useful in the honey packaging and commercialization industry.


Voltammetric electronic tongue Pattern recognition techniques Discrimination of honey Geographical/botanical origins Adulteration 



We are very grateful to the APIA cooperative for the honeys it provides us.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

We declare that we do not have any commercial or associative interest that represents a conflict of interests in connection with the work submitted.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

I would like to declare on behalf of my co-authors that the work described was original research that has not been published previously, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere, in whole or in part. All the authors listed have approved the manuscript for publication.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Madiha Bougrini
    • 1
    • 2
  • Khalid Tahri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tarik Saidi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nadia El Alami El Hassani
    • 2
    • 1
  • Benachir Bouchikhi
    • 1
  • Nezha El Bari
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Sensor Electronic & Instrumentation Group, Faculty of Sciences, Physics DepartmentMoulay Ismaïl UniversityMeknesMorocco
  2. 2.Biotechnology Agroalimentary and Biomedical Analysis Group, Faculty of Sciences, Biology DepartmentMoulay Ismaïl UniversityMeknesMorocco

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