Multi-method Approach to Trace the Geographical Origin of Alpine Milk: a Case Study of Tyrol Region
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This work aims to discriminate milk samples according to their geographical origin, heat treatment, and season of production. This was achieved by combining different techniques, such as isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), mid- (MIRS) and near-infrared spectroscopies (NIRS), and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Milk samples were from North Tyrol (raw milk), South Tyrol (raw milk and high-temperature short time (HTST)), both collected in different seasons. Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk samples were from other European regions. These techniques, when used alone, showed limited discrimination capacity. Instead, when such techniques were combined in a multi-variate classification method (PLS-DA), then, milk samples were discriminated according to their geographical origin with an error lower than 5 %. The type of processing and the season were also discriminated. The combination of different techniques compensated their inherent limits and provided a good potential for determining the geographic origin of milk.
KeywordsGeographical origin Milk Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) Fatty acid profile (GC-FID) Alpine region
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study received funding from Interreg IV Italy-Austria program (ERDF; project “Originalp” no. 5269 CUP: B27F11001020007).
Conflict of Interest
Matteo Scampicchio declares that he has no conflict of interest. Daniela Eisenstecken declares that she has no conflict of interest. Lorenzo De Benedictis declares that he has no conflict of interest. Calogero Capici declares that he has no conflict of interest. Davide Ballabio declares that he has no conflict of interest. Tanja Mimmo declares that she has no conflict of interest. Peter Robatscher declares that he has no conflict of interest. Luis Kerschbaumer declares that he has no conflict of interest. Michael Oberhuber declares that he has no conflict of interest. Annemarie Kaser declares that she has no conflict of interest. Christian Huck declares that he has no conflict of interest. Stefano Cesco declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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