Multi-method Approach to Trace the Geographical Origin of Alpine Milk: a Case Study of Tyrol Region
- 289 Downloads
This work aims to discriminate milk samples according to their geographical origin, heat treatment, and season of production. This was achieved by combining different techniques, such as isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), mid- (MIRS) and near-infrared spectroscopies (NIRS), and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Milk samples were from North Tyrol (raw milk), South Tyrol (raw milk and high-temperature short time (HTST)), both collected in different seasons. Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk samples were from other European regions. These techniques, when used alone, showed limited discrimination capacity. Instead, when such techniques were combined in a multi-variate classification method (PLS-DA), then, milk samples were discriminated according to their geographical origin with an error lower than 5 %. The type of processing and the season were also discriminated. The combination of different techniques compensated their inherent limits and provided a good potential for determining the geographic origin of milk.
KeywordsGeographical origin Milk Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) Fatty acid profile (GC-FID) Alpine region
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study received funding from Interreg IV Italy-Austria program (ERDF; project “Originalp” no. 5269 CUP: B27F11001020007).
Conflict of Interest
Matteo Scampicchio declares that he has no conflict of interest. Daniela Eisenstecken declares that she has no conflict of interest. Lorenzo De Benedictis declares that he has no conflict of interest. Calogero Capici declares that he has no conflict of interest. Davide Ballabio declares that he has no conflict of interest. Tanja Mimmo declares that she has no conflict of interest. Peter Robatscher declares that he has no conflict of interest. Luis Kerschbaumer declares that he has no conflict of interest. Michael Oberhuber declares that he has no conflict of interest. Annemarie Kaser declares that she has no conflict of interest. Christian Huck declares that he has no conflict of interest. Stefano Cesco declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Asfaha DG, Quetel CR, Thomas F, Horacek M, Wimmer B, Heiss G, Dekant C, Deters-Itzelsberger P, Hoelzl S, Rummel S, Brach-Papa C, Van Bocxstaele M, Jamin E, Baxter M, Heinrich K, Kelly S, Bertoldi D, Bontempo L, Camin F, Larcher R, Perini M, Rossmann A, Schellenberg A, Schlicht C, Froeschl H, Hoogewerff J, Ueckermann H (2011) Combining isotopic signatures of n(Sr-87)/n(Sr-86) and light stable elements (C, N, O, S) with multi-elemental profiling for the authentication of provenance of European cereal samples. J Cereal Sci 53:170–177. doi: 10.1016/j.jcs.2010.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bisig W, Collomb M, Buetikofer U, Sieber R, Bregy M, Etter L (2008) Seasonal variation of fatty acid composition in Swiss mountain’s milk. Agrarforschung 15:38–43Google Scholar
- Boutton T, TYRRELL H, PATTERSON B, VARGA G, KLEIN P (1988) Carbon kinetics of milk formation in Holstein cows in late lactation. J Anim Sci 66:2636–2645Google Scholar
- Collomb M, Butikofer U, Sieber R, Jeangros B, Bosset J (2002b) Correlation between fatty acids in cows’ milk fat produced in the lowlands, mountains and highlands of Switzerland and botanical composition of the fodder international. Int Dairy J 12:661–666. doi: 10.1016/S0958-6946(02)00062-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Collomb M, Butikofer U, Spahni M, Jeangros B, Bosset J (1999) Fatty acid and glyceride composition of cow's milk fat in high- and lowland regions. Sci Des Aliments 19:97–110Google Scholar
- Heigl N, Greiderer A, Petter CH, Kolomiets O, Siesler HW, Ulbricht M, Bonn GK, Huck CW (2008) Simultaneous determination of the micro-, meso-, and macropore size fractions of porous polymers by a combined use of Fourier transform near-infrared diffuse reflection spectroscopy and multivariate techniques. Anal Chem 80:8493–8500. doi: 10.1021/ac8013059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kesek M, Szulc T, Zielak-Steciwko A (2014) Genetic, physiological and nutritive factors affecting the fatty acid profile in cows’ milk—a review. Anim Sci Paper Rep 32:95–105Google Scholar
- Kornexl B, Werner T, Rossmann A, Schmidt H (1997) Measurement of stable isotope abundances in milk and milk ingredients—a possible tool for origin assignment and quality control. Zeitschrift Fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung Und-Forschung A-Food Res and Technol 205:19–24. doi: 10.1007/s002170050117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Maerk J, Andre M, Karner M, Huck CW (2010a) Prospects for multivariate classification of a pharmaceutical intermediate with near-infrared spectroscopy as a process analytical technology (PAT) production control supplement. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 76:320–327. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2010.06.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Manca G, Camin F, Coloru GC, Del Caro A, Depentori D, Franco MA, Versini G (2001) Characterization of the geographical origin of pecorino sardo cheese by casein stable isotope (C-13/C-12 and N-15/N-14) ratios and free amino acid ratios. J Agric Food Chem 49:1404–1409. doi: 10.1021/jf000706c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pillonel L, Badertscher R, Froidevaux P, Haberhauer G, Holzl S, Horn P, Jakob A, Pfammatter E, Piantini U, Rossmann A, Tabacchi R, Bosset J (2003) Stable isotope ratios, major, trace and radioactive elements in emmental cheeses of different origins Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft Und-Technologie-Food. Sci Technol 36:615–623. doi: 10.1016/S0023-6438(03)00081-1 Google Scholar
- Sanchez A, Sierra D, Luengo C, Corrales JC, de la Fe C, Morales CT, Contreras A, Gonzalo C (2007) Evaluation of the MilkoScan FT 6000 milk analyzer for determining the freezing point of goat’s milk under different analytical conditions. J Dairy Sci 90:3153–3161. doi: 10.3168/jds.2007-0038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Scampicchio M, Mimmo T, Capici C, Huck C, Innocente N, Drusch S, Cesco S (2012) Identification of milk origin and process-induced changes in milk by stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 60. doi: 10.1021/jf302846j
- Silva AV, Helie JF, Caxito FA, Monardes H, Mustafa AF, Stevenson R (2014) Multi-stable isotope analysis as a tool for assessing the geographic provenance of dairy products: a case study using buffalo's milk and cheese samples from the Amazon basin, Brazil. Int Dairy J 35:107–110. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2013.10.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tsenkova R, Atanassova S, Itoh K, Ozaki Y, Toyoda K (2000) Near infrared spectroscopy for biomonitoring: cow milk composition measurement in a spectral region from 1,100 to 2,400 nanometers. J Anim Sci 78:515–522Google Scholar
- Velcovska S, Sadilek T (2014) Analysis of quality labels included in the European Union quality schemes Czech. J Food Sci 32:194–203Google Scholar