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Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 8, Issue 10, pp 2612–2625 | Cite as

Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Apples

  • Lidija JakobekEmail author
  • Martina Boc
  • Andrew R. Barron
Article

Abstract

In order to optimize conditions for the extraction of polyphenols from apples, peel and flesh of apples were subjected to an extraction process with different solvents consisting of various ratios of methanol and water (40, 60, 80 %), 100 % methanol, or with methanol acidified with hydrochloric acid (0.1 %). Extractions were performed using an ultrasonic bath with time periods from 5 to 15 min. Total polyphenols and total anthocyanins were analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteau or the pH differential method, respectively. Individual polyphenols were analyzed with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (RP-HPLC-PDA). The differences in polyphenol content were statistically analyzed using t tests, associated with a regression model. The results showed that an efficient extraction from the peel could be performed with 80 % methanol to extract flavonols, anthocyanins, dihydrochalcones, and flavan-3-ols. Acidified methanol could also be useful for the extraction of anthocyanins and flavonols from the peel. For the flesh, 80 % methanol could be a solvent of choice for flavan-3-ols, dihydrochalcones, and hydroxycinnamic acids.

Keywords

Ultrasonic extraction RP-HPLC Apples Old varieties Phenolic compounds 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Mr. M. Veić for his donation of apple samples for this research. The research was funded by the J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek project: Characterization of polyphenols in old apple cultivars.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Authors Jakobek Lidija, Boc Martina, Barron R. Andrew declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lidija Jakobek
    • 1
    Email author
  • Martina Boc
    • 1
  • Andrew R. Barron
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Applied Chemistry and Ecology, Faculty of Food Technology OsijekJ. J. Strossmayer University of OsijekOsijekCroatia
  2. 2.Department of StatisticsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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