A new method has been developed to determine resveratrol and piceid isomers in bee pollen using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). An efficient extraction procedure has also been proposed (average analyte recoveries were between 89 and 96 %); this involved a cleaning step with hexane, a solid–liquid extraction using a mixture of ethanol and water (80:20, v/v), and a concentration step in a rotary evaporator. The separation of all the compounds was achieved using a C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm) and a mobile phase composed of 1 % (v/v) formic acid in water and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), linearity, precision, and accuracy. The LOD and LOQ values ranged from 10 to 25 and 35 to 80 μg/kg, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was applied to analyze bee pollen samples from different origins.
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Authors gratefully acknowledge funding (Project RTA2012-00076-CO2-02). Authors wish to thank the CAR of Marchamalo (Guadalajara, Spain) for supplying the blank pollen samples. A. M. Ares would like to thank the Spanish Ministry “Educación, Cultura y Deporte” for her Ph.D grant, while M.E. Soto thanks the MAEC-AECID for her grant. In addition, authors thank David Rixham (White Rose English School, Valladolid, Spain) for performing the English revision.
Conflict of Interest
Ana M. Ares declares that she has no conflict of interest.
María E. Soto declares that she has no conflict of interest.
María J. Nozal declares that she has no conflict of interest.
José L. Bernal declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Mariano Higes declares that he has no conflict of interest.
José Bernal declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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Ares, A.M., Soto, M.E., Nozal, M.J. et al. Determination of Resveratrol and Piceid Isomers in Bee Pollen by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry. Food Anal. Methods 8, 1565–1575 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-014-0048-8
- Bee pollen
- Piceid isomers
- Resveratrol isomers
- Solid–liquid extraction