Advertisement

Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 36–39 | Cite as

Assays of the Amino Acid Tryptophan in Cherries by HPLC-Fluorescence

  • J. Cubero
  • F. Toribio
  • M. Garrido
  • M. T. Hernández
  • J. Maynar
  • C. Barriga
  • A. B. Rodríguez
Article

Abstract

Seven varieties of cherry from the “Valle del Jerte” in the Spanish Region of Extremadura were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively for their content of the amino acid tryptophan. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid in humans, being the precursor of the indolamines serotonin and melatonin which are biogenic amines with great importance in human sleep function. It is also of great importance in the synthesis of indole alkaloids in fruit. The objective of the present work was to determine the levels of tryptophan in “Valle del Jerte” (Extremadura, Spain) cherry varieties by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Tryptophan was found in all seven varieties tested, the mean concentration being 54.48 ± 17.14 g/ml. There were major differences between the varieties. The highest levels corresponded to the variety Navalinda and the lowest to Pico colorado. The tryptophan content of all the cherry varieties tested, in particular Navalinda, will have importance as the precursor for the biosynthesis of the biogenic amines.

Keywords

Tryptophan Prunus avium HPLC-FL Cherry 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the funding for this research to Convention Uex-Agrupación de Cooperativas Valle del Jerte 067/07 and PDT08A008 Junta de Extremadura and the technical assistance of Ms Elena Circujano Vadillo, our laboratory technician.

References

  1. Alonso J (2001) La calidad en el proceso de manipulación de la cereza en la Agrupación de Cooperativas del Valle del Jerte. Fruticultura Profesional 118:49–55Google Scholar
  2. Burkhardt S, Tan D, Manchester LC, Hardeland R, Reiter RJ (2001) Detection and quantification of antioxidant melatonin in Montmorency and Balaton tart cherries (Prunus cerasus). J Agric Food Chem 49:4898–4902. doi: 10.1021/jf010321+ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cubero J, Esteban S, Sánchez J, Rodríguez AB, Barriga C (2005a) Ion-exchange HPLC assay of tryptophan in breast milk of mothers with three months breast-feeding. Biog Amines 19:171–175. doi: 10.1163/156939105774288771 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cubero J, Valero V, Sánchez J, Rivero M, Parvez H, Rodríguez AB, Barriga C (2005b) The circadian rhythm of tryptophan in breast milk affects the rhythms of 6sulfatoxymelatonin and sleep in newborn. Neuroendocrinol Lett 26:657–661Google Scholar
  5. Cubero J, Narciso D, Terrón P, Rial R, Esteban S, Rivero M, Parvez H, Rodríguez A, Barriga C (2007) Chrononutrition applied to formula milks consolidate infant’s sleep/wake cycle. Neuroendocrinol Lett 28:360–366Google Scholar
  6. Hajak G, Huether G, Blanke J, Freyer B, Poeggeler P, Reimer A, Rodenbeck A, Schulz-Varszegi A, Ruether M (1991) The influence of intravenous L-tryptophan on plasma melatonin and sleep in men. Pharmacopsychiat 24:17–21Google Scholar
  7. Herraiz T, Galisteo J (2002) Identification and occurrence of the novel alkaloid pentahydroxypentyl-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid as a tryptophan glycoconjugate in fruit juices and jams. J Agric Food Chem 50:4690–4695. doi: 10.1021/jf020090m CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hoenicke H, Simat JT, Steinhart H, Christoph N, Kohler HJ, Schwab A (1999) Determination of tryptophan and tryptophan metabolites in grape must and wine. Tryptophan, Serotonin and Melatonin; Basic Aspect and Applications. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publisher. New York 86:671–677Google Scholar
  9. Hoenicke H, Simat JT, Steinhart H, Christoph N, Kohler HJ, Schwab A (2001) Determination of free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, tryptophan and tryptophan metabolites in grape must and wine. J Agric Food Chem 49:5494–5501. doi: 10.1021/jf010575v CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Iriti M, Faoro F (2006) Grape phytochemicals: A bouquet of old and new nutriceuticals for human health. Med Hypotheses 67:833–838. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2006.03.049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lemaire PA, Reimmel K, Adosraku K (2002) An HPLC method for direct assay of the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan, in seeds of Griffonia simplicifolia. Phytochem Anal 13:333–337. doi: 10.1002/pca.659 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nicholson A, Stone B (1979) L-tryptophan and sleep in healthy man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 47:539–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Reiter RJ, Tan D, Manchester LC, Simopoulus AP, Maldonado MD, Flores LJ, Terrón MP (2007) Melatonin in edible plants (phytomelatonin): Identification, concentration, bioavailability and proposed functions. World Rev Nutr Diet 97:211–230Google Scholar
  14. Wang H, Nari MG, Strabur GM, Booren AM, Gray JI (1999a) Novel antioxidant compounds from tart cherries (Prunus cerasus). J Nat Prod 62:86–88. doi: 10.1021/np980268s CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wang H, Nair MG, Strasbur GM, Booren AM, Gray JI (1999b) Antioxidant polyphenols from tart cherries (Prunus cerasus). J Agric Food 47:840–844. doi: 10.1021/jf980936f CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Cubero
    • 1
  • F. Toribio
    • 2
  • M. Garrido
    • 1
  • M. T. Hernández
    • 3
  • J. Maynar
    • 2
  • C. Barriga
    • 1
  • A. B. Rodríguez
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Physiology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of ExtremaduraBadajozSpain
  2. 2.Department of Analytical ChemistryUniversity of ExtremaduraBadajozSpain
  3. 3.Agrifood Technological Institute, Junta de ExtremaduraBadajozSpain

Personalised recommendations