Smoking, Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior, and Diet Associated with Habitual Sleep Duration and Chronotype: Data from the UK Biobank
- 682 Downloads
Sleep duration has been implicated in the etiology of obesity but less is known about the association between sleep and other behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
The aim of this study was to examine the associations among sleep duration, chronotype, and physical activity, screen-based sedentary behavior, tobacco use, and dietary intake.
Regression models were used to examine sleep duration and chronotype as the predictors and cardiovascular risk factors as outcomes of interest in a cross-sectional sample of 439,933 adults enrolled in the UK Biobank project.
Short sleepers were 45 % more likely to smoke tobacco than adequate sleepers (9.8 vs. 6.9 %, respectively). Late chronotypes were more than twice as likely to smoke tobacco than intermediate types (14.9 vs. 7.4 %, respectively). Long sleepers reported 0.61 more hours of television per day than adequate sleepers. Early chronotypes reported 0.20 fewer daily hours of computer use per day than intermediate chronotypes. Early chronotypes had 0.25 more servings of fruit and 0.13 more servings of vegetables per day than late chronotypes.
Short and long sleep duration and late chronotype are associated with greater likelihood of cardiovascular risk behaviors. Further work is needed to determine whether these findings are maintained in the context of objective sleep and circadian estimates, and in more diverse samples. The extent to which promoting adequate sleep duration and earlier sleep timing improves heart health should also be examined prospectively.
KeywordsSleep duration Chronotype Physical activity Sedentary behavior Tobacco use Dietary intake
This research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource. Funding was provided by the Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholars program at the University of Pennsylvania.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Authors’ Statement of Conflict of Interest and Adherence to Ethical Standards Authors Freda Patterson, Susan Kohl Malone, Alicia Lozano, Michael A. Grandner, and Alexandra L. Hanlon declare that they have no conflict of interest. All procedures, including the informed consent process, were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000.
- 3.Centers for Disease C, Prevention. Adult participation in aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activities—United States, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013; 62: 326-330.Google Scholar
- 19.Farnsworth JL, Kim Y, Kang M. Sleep disorders, physical activity, and sedentary behavior among U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Phys Act Health. 2015.Google Scholar
- 35.Broms U, Pennanen M, Patja K, et al.: Diurnal evening type is associated with current smoking, nicotine dependence and nicotine intake in the population based National FINRISK 2007 Study. J Addict Res Ther. 2012; S2.Google Scholar
- 41.UK Biobank: UK Biobank: Protocol for a large-scale prospective epidemiological resource, 2007.Google Scholar
- 43.Biobank U: Retrieved July 20, 2015 from http://www.ukbiobank.ac.uk/
- 48.Livewell N: Five a day portion sizes. Retrieved October 23, 2015 from http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/5ADAY/Pages/Portionsizes.aspx
- 55.Zhai L, Zhang H, Zhang D. Sleep duration and depression among adults: A meta-analysis of prospective studies. Depress Anxiety. 2015.Google Scholar
- 75.Bann D, Hire D, Manini T, et al. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to body mass index and grip strength in older adults: Cross-sectional findings from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study. PLoS One. 2015; 10: e0116058.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 78.Zhan J, Liu YJ, Cai LB, et al. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015.Google Scholar
- 86.Prochaska JJ, Prochaska JO: A review of multiple health behavior change interventions for primary prevention. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2011, 5.Google Scholar
- 88.Jayawardene WP, Torabi MR, Lohrmann DK: Exercise in young adulthood with simultaneous and future changes in fruit and vegetable intake. J Am Coll Nutr. 2015:1–9.Google Scholar
- 91.Wright KP Jr, McHill AW, Birks BR, et al. Entrainment of the human circadian clock to the natural light–dark cycle. Curr Biol. 2013.Google Scholar