Body Mass and Physical Activity Uniquely Predict Change in Cognition for Aging Adults
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Physical activity and body mass predict cognition in the elderly. However, mixed evidence suggests that obesity is associated with poorer cognition, while also protecting against cognitive decline in older age.
We investigated whether body mass independently predicted cognition in older age and whether these associations changed over time.
A latent curve structural equation modeling approach was used to analyze data from a sample of aging adults (N = 8442) split into two independent subsamples, collected over 6 years.
Lower baseline Body Mass Index (BMI) and higher physical activity independently predicted greater baseline cognition (p < 0.001). Decreases in BMI and physical activity independently predicted greater decline in the slope of cognition (p < 0.001).
Our results support the obesity paradox in cognitive aging, with lower baseline body mass predicting better cognition, but less decline over time protecting against cognitive decline. We discuss how weight loss in the elderly may serve as a useful indicator of co-occurring cognitive decline, and we discuss implications for health care professionals.
KeywordsCognitive aging Physical activity Body mass
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of Interest
Authors’ Statement of Conflict of Interest and Adherence to Ethical Standards Authors Molly Memel, Kyle Bourassa, Cindy Woolverton, and David A. Sbarra declare that they have no conflict of interest. All procedures, including the informed consent process, were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000.
This paper uses data from SHARE wave 4 release 1.1.1, as of March 28th 2013, and SHARE wave 1 and 2 release 2.6.0 as of November 29th 2013. The SHARE data collection has been primarily funded by the European Commission through the 5th Framework Programme (project QLK6-CT-2001-00360 in the thematic programme Quality of Life), through the 6th Framework Programme (projects SHARE-I3, RII-CT-2006-062193, COMPARE, CIT5-CT-2005-028857, and SHARELIFE CIT4-CT-2006-028812), and through the 7th Framework Programme (SHARE-PREP, N° 211909, SHARE-LEAP, N° 227822 and SHARE M4, N° 261982). Additional funding from the U.S. National Institute on Aging (U01 AG09740-13S2, P01 AG005842, P01 AG08291, P30 AG12815, R21 AG025169, Y1-AG-4553-01, IAG BSR06-11 and OGHA 04–064) and the German Ministry of Education and Research as well as from various national resources is gratefully acknowledged (see www.share-project.org for a full list of funding institutions).
Until July 2011, SHARE has been reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Mannheim. Since then, the Ethics Council of the Max-Planck-Society for the Advancement of Science (MPG) is responsible for ethical reviews and the approval of the study.
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