See Hear: Psychological Effects of Music and Music-Video During Treadmill Running



There is a paucity of work addressing the distractive, affect-enhancing, and motivational influences of music and video in combination during exercise.


We examined the effects of music and music-and-video on a range of psychological and psychophysical variables during treadmill running at intensities above and below ventilatory threshold (VT).


Participants (N = 24) exercised at 10 % of maximal capacity below VT and 10 % above under music-only, music-and-video, and control conditions.


There was a condition × intensity × time interaction for perceived activation and state motivation, and an intensity × time interaction for state attention, perceived exertion (RPE), and affective valence. The music-and-video condition elicited the highest levels of dissociation, lowest RPE, and most positive affective responses regardless of exercise intensity.


Attentional manipulations influence psychological and psychophysical variables at exercise intensities above and below VT, and this effect is enhanced by the combined presentation of auditory and visual stimuli.

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The authors would like to thank Alisha Ciolek, Paul Dalton, Jacob Ferreira, Elizabeth Hopley, Melanie Shepard, Nicholas Stodolski, and Christopher Williamson for their assistance in the data collection phase of this study.

Authors’ Statement of Conflict of Interest and Adherence to Ethical Standards

Jasmin C. Hutchinson, Costas I. Karageorghis, and Leighton Jones, have no conflict of interest to declare. All procedures, including the informed consent process, were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000.

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Correspondence to Jasmin C. Hutchinson Ph. D.

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Hutchinson, J.C., Karageorghis, C.I. & Jones, L. See Hear: Psychological Effects of Music and Music-Video During Treadmill Running. ann. behav. med. 49, 199–211 (2015).

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  • Affective response
  • Dissociation
  • Dual-mode theory
  • Exercise