Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 57–70 | Cite as

Sexual Orientation and Gender Differences in Markers of Inflammation and Immune Functioning

  • Bethany G. Everett
  • Margaret Rosario
  • Katie A. McLaughlin
  • S. Bryn Austin
Original Article



Sexual minorities have documented elevated risk factors that can lead to inflammation and poor immune functioning.


This study aims to investigate disparities in C-reactive protein (CRP) and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) by gender and sexual orientation.


We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine disparities in CRP (N = 11,462) and EBV (N = 11,812).


Among heterosexuals, women had higher levels of CRP and EBV than men. However, sexual minority men had higher levels of CRP and EBV than heterosexual men and sexual minority women. Lesbians had lower levels of CRP than heterosexual women.


Gender differences in CRP and EBV found between men and women who identify as 100 % heterosexual were reversed among sexual minorities and not explained by known risk factors (e.g., victimization, alcohol and tobacco use, and body mass index). More nuanced approaches to addressing gender differences in sexual orientation health disparities that include measures of gender nonconformity and minority stress are needed.


Gender Sexual orientation Inflammation Immune functioning Stress 


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Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bethany G. Everett
    • 1
  • Margaret Rosario
    • 2
  • Katie A. McLaughlin
    • 3
  • S. Bryn Austin
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychology, The City College and Graduate CenterThe City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Division of Adolescent and Young Adult MedicineBoston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Social and Behavioral SciencesHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  6. 6.Department of PediatricsHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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