Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 299–307 | Cite as

Type D Personality Is Associated with the Development of Stress Cardiomyopathy Following Emotional Triggers

  • Angelo CompareEmail author
  • Riccardo Bigi
  • Pedro Silva Orrego
  • Riccardo Proietti
  • Enzo Grossi
  • Andrew Steptoe
Original Article



Stress cardiomyopathy (SCM) can be triggered by emotional events. Recently, type D personality has been established as an independent predictor of acute cardiac adverse events.


We sought to examine whether type D personality can be identified in SCM patients.


A case–control study with 37 SCM patients, 37 myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, who both experienced emotional triggering, and 37 SCM patients without emotional triggers was performed. The DS14 and Interview for Recent Life Events were administered.


Twenty-eight (76 %) SCM emotional trigger patients were categorized as type D compared with 13 (43 %) SCM patients without emotional trigger and 12 (32 %) AMI patients (p < 0.001). SCM patients with emotional triggers had higher scores on the social inhibition subscale than the other patient groups.


The present study highlights the possible link between type D, with a specific key role for social inhibition component, and increased biological reactivity to acute emotional stress.


Stress cardiomyopathy Case–control Studies Personality traits Emotional triggering Type D 


Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors have no conflict of interest to disclose. Andrew Steptoe is supported by the British Heart Foundation.


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Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelo Compare
    • 1
    Email author
  • Riccardo Bigi
    • 2
  • Pedro Silva Orrego
    • 3
  • Riccardo Proietti
    • 4
  • Enzo Grossi
    • 5
  • Andrew Steptoe
    • 6
  1. 1.University of BergamoBergamoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Cardiovascular SciencesUniversity School of MedicineMilanItaly
  3. 3.Interventional Cardiology UnitHospital FatebenefratelliMilanItaly
  4. 4.Department of CardiologyHospital L. SaccoMilanItaly
  5. 5.Centro Diagnostico Italiano, CDIMilanItaly
  6. 6.Psychobiology Group, Department of Epidemiology and Public HealthUniversity College LondonLondonUK

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