Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 126–140 | Cite as

Individual Differences in Executive Functioning: Implications for Stress Regulation

Original Article

Abstract

Background

Executive functioning (EF) refers to the set of neurocognitive processes that facilitate novel problem solving, modification of behavior in response to environmental changes, planning and generating strategies for complex actions, and ability to override pre-potent behavioral and emotional responses to engage in goal-directed behavior.

Purpose

To provide an overview of research on individual differences in EF and examine the extent to which these individual differences confer risk and resilience for poor stress regulation.

Results

Review of the literature suggests that individual differences in EF are evident at multiple levels of analysis including genotype, endophenotype (e.g., performance on cognitive tasks), and phenotype (e.g., temperament and personality). These individual differences are associated with differential stress exposure, reactivity, recovery, and restorative processes.

Conclusions

A theoretical framework that includes individual differences in EF will inform behavioral medicine research on stress risk and resilience.

References

  1. 1.
    Uchino BN, Smith TW, Holt-Lunstad J, Campo R, Reblin M. Stress and illness. In: Cacioppo JT, Tassinary LG, eds. Handbook of Psychophysiology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 2007: 608–632.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Suchy Y. Executive functioning: Overview, assessment, and research issues for non-neuropsychologists. Ann Behav Med. 2009; 37(2).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harlow JM. Recovery from the passage of an iron bar through the head. Publications of the Massachusetts Medical Society. 1868; 2: 327–347.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alexander MP. Mild traumatic brain injury: Pathophysiology, natural history, and clinical management. Neurology. 1995; 45: 1253–1260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marschark M, Richtsmeier LM, Richardson JT, Crovitz HF, Henry J. Intellectual and emotional functioning in college students following mild traumatic brain injury in childhood and adolescence. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2000; 15: 1227–1245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eslinger PJ, Grattan LM, Geder L. Neurologic and neuropsychiatric aspects of frontal lobe impairments in postconcussive syndrome. In: Rizzo M, Tranel D, eds. Head Injury and Postconcussive Syndrome. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fertuck EA, Lenzenweger MF, Clarkin JF. The association between attentional and executive controls in the expression of borderline personality disorder features: A preliminary study. Psychopathology. 2005; 38: 75–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Posner MI, Rothbart MK, Vizueta N, et al. Attentional mechanisms of borderline personality disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002; 99: 16366–16370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gruber S, Rathgeber K, Braunig P, Gauggel S. Stability and course of neuropsychological deficits in manic and depressed bipolar patients compared to patients with Major Depression. J Affect Disord. 2007; 104: 61–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Olley A, Malhi G, Sachdev P. Memory and executive functioning in obsessive–compulsive disorder: A selective review. J Affect Disord. 2007; 104: 15–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Paelecke-Habermann Y, Pohl J, Leplow B. Attention and executive functions in remitted major depression patients. J Affect Disord. 2005; 89: 125–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rubinsztein JS, Michael A, Paykel ES, Sahakian BJ. Cognitive impairment in remission in bipolar affective disorder. Psychol Med. 2000; 30: 1025–1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blume AW, Marlatt GA. The role of executive cognitive functions in changing substance use: What we know and what we need to know. Ann Behav Med. 2009; 37(2).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brand M, Franke-Sievert C, Jacoby GE, Markowitsch HJ, Tuschen-Caffier B. Neuropsychological correlates of decision making in patients with bulimia nervosa. Neuropsychology. 2007; 21: 742–750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stevens MC, Kaplan RF, Hesselbrock VM. Executive-cognitive functioning in the development of antisocial personality disorder. Addict Behav. 2003; 28: 285–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Seidman LJ. Neuropsychological functioning in people with ADHD across the lifespan. Clin Psychol Rev. 2006; 26: 466–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Biederman J, Faraone SV, Spencer T, et al. Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, cognition, and psychosocial functioning in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1993; 150: 1792–1798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mullin BC, Hinshaw SP. Emotion regulation and externalizing disorders in children and adolescents. In: Gross JJ, ed. Handbook of Emotion Regulation. New York: The Guilford Press; 2007; 523–541.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fan J, Wu Y, Fossella JA, Posner MI. Assessing the heritability of attentional networks. BMC Neurosci. 2001; 2: 14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cornblatt BA, Risch NJ, Faris G, Friedman D, Erlenmeyer-Kimling L. The Continuous Performance Test, identical pairs version (CPT-IP): I. New findings about sustained attention in normal families. Psychiatry Res. 1988; 26: 223–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Anokhin AP, Heath AC, Ralano A. Genetic influences on frontal brain function: WCST performance in twins. NeuroReport. 2003; 14: 1975–1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kremen WS, Eisen SA, Tsuang MT, Lyons MJ. Is the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test a useful neurocognitive endophenotype? Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007; 144B: 403–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Friedman NP, Miyake A, Young SE, et al. Individual differences in executive functions are almost entirely genetic in origin. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2008; 137: 201–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lumme V, Aalto S, Ilonen T, Nagren K, Hietala J. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding in the anterior cingulate cortex and executive functioning. Psychiatry Res. 2007; 156: 69–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fossella J, Sommer T, Fan J, Wu Y, Swanson JM, Pfaff DW, Posner MI. Assessing the molecular genetics of attention networks. BMC Neurosci. 2007; 3: 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fan J, Fossella J, Sommer T, Wu Y, Posner MI. Mapping the genetic variation of executive attention onto brain activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003; 100: 7406–7411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rodriguez-Jimenez R, Cubillo A, Jimenez-Arriero MA, et al. Executive dysfunctions in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Rev Neurol. 2006; 43: 678–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McQueen MB, Bertram L, Lange C, et al. Exploring candidate gene associations with neuropsychological performance. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007; 144B: 987–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Reynolds CA, Prince JA, Feuk L, et al. Longitudinal memory performance during normal aging: Twin association models of APOE and other Alzheimer candidate genes. Behav Genet. 2006; 36: 185–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bishop SJ, Cohen JD, Fossella J, Casey BJ, Farah MJ. COMT genotype influences prefrontal response to emotional distraction. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2006; 6: 62–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gallinat J, Bajbouj M, Sander T, et al. Association of the G1947A COMT (Val(108/158) Met) gene polymorphism with prefrontal P300 during information processing. Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 54: 40–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Blasi G, Mattay VS, Bertolino A, et al. Effect of catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met genotype on attentional control. J Neurosci. 2005; 25: 5038–5045.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Diamond A, Briand L, Fossella J, Gehlbach L. Genetic and neurochemical modulation of prefrontal cognitive functions in children. Am J Psychiatry. 2004; 161: 125–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    de Frias CM, Annerbrink K, Westberg L, et al. Catechol O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism is associated with cognitive performance in nondemented adults. J Cogn Neurosci. 2005; 17: 1018–1025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Heinz A, Smolka MN. The effects of catechol O-methyltransferase genotype on brain activation elicited by affective stimuli and cognitive tasks. Rev Neurosci. 2006; 17: 359–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Canli T, Omura K, Haas BW, et al. Beyond affect: A role for genetic variation of the serotonin transporter in neural activation during a cognitive attention task. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005; 102: 12224–12229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Reuter M, Ott U, Vaitl D, Hennig J. Impaired executive control is associated with a variation in the promoter region of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene. J Cogn Neurosci. 2007; 19: 401–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sen S, Burmeister M, Ghosh D. Meta-analysis of the association between a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and anxiety-related personality traits. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2004; 127B: 85–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schinka JA, Busch RM, Robichaux-Keene N. A meta-analysis of the association between the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and trait anxiety. Mol Psychiatry. 2004; 9: 197–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hariri AR, Mattay VS, Tessitore A, et al. Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science. 2002; 297: 400–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hariri AR, Drabant EM, Munoz KE, et al. A susceptibility gene for affective disorders and the response of the human amygdala. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62: 146–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Heinz A, Braus DF, Smolka MN, et al. Amygdala–prefrontal coupling depends on a genetic variation of the serotonin transporter. Nat Neurosci. 2005; 8: 20–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pezawas L, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Drabant EM, et al. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulate–amygdala interactions: A genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression. Nat Neurosci. 2005; 8: 828–834.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Manuck SB, Flory JD, Ferrell RE, et al. Aggression and anger-related traits associated with a polymorphism of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene. Biol Psychiatry. 1999; 45: 603–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Posner MI, Rothbart MK. Research on attention networks as a model for the integration of psychological science. Annu Rev Psychol. 2007; 58: 1–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jersild AT. Mental set and shift. Archives of Psychology. 1927, 14:whole issue.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dreher JC, Grafman J. Dissociating the roles of the rostral anterior cingulate and the lateral prefrontal cortices in performing two tasks simultaneously or successively. Cereb Cortex. 2003; 13: 329–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sylvester CY, Wager TD, Lacey SC, et al. Switching attention and resolving interference: fMRI measures of executive functions. Neuropsychologia. 2003; 41: 357–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    DiGirolamo GJ, Kramer AF, Barad V, et al. General and task-specific frontal lobe recruitment in older adults during executive processes: A fMRI investigation of task-switching. NeuroReport. 2001; 12: 2065–2071.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dove A, Pollmann S, Schubert T, Wiggins CJ, von Cramon DY. Prefrontal cortex activation in task switching: An event-related fMRI study. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2000; 9: 103–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Moulden DJA, Picton TW, Meiran N, et al. Event-related potentials when switching attention between task-sets., Brain & Cognition (Vol. 37). United Kingdom: Elsevier Science, United Kingdom, 1998, 186–190.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mecklinger A, von Cramon DY, Springer A, Matthes-von Cramon G. Executive control functions in task switching: Evidence from brain injured patients., Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology (Vol. 21). Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger, Netherlands, 1999, 606–619.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rogers RD, Sahakian BJ, Hodges JR, et al. Dissociating executive mechanisms of task control following frontal lobe damage and Parkinson’s disease., Brain (Vol. 121). United Kingdom: Oxford Univ Press, United Kingdom, 1998, 815-842.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mathews A, MacLeod C. Cognitive approaches to emotion and emotional disorders. Annu Rev Psychol. 1994; 45: 25–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rothbart MK. Temperament, development, and personality. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2007; 16: 207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Posner MI, Rothbart MK, Sheese BE. Attention genes. Dev Sci. 2007; 10: 24–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Smith TW, Williams PG. Personality and health: Advantages and limitations of the five-factor model. J Pers. 1992; 60: 395–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shiner R, Caspi A. Personality differences in childhood and adolescence: Measurement, development, and consequences. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2003; 44: 2–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Williams PG, Smith TW, Cribbet MR. Personality and health: Current evidence, potential mechanisms, and future directions. In: Boyle GJ, Matthews G, Saklofske DH, eds. Personality Theory and Assessment: Personality Theories and Models (Vol. 1). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 2008; 635–658.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Williams PG, Smith TW, Gunn HE, Uchino BN. Personality and stress: Individual differences in exposure, reactivity, recovery, and restoration. In Contrada R, Baum A, eds. Handbook of Stress Science: Biology, Psychology, and Health. New York, NY: Springer; (in press).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Costa PT, McCrae RR. Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources; 1992.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Roberts BW, Walton KE, Bogg T. Conscientiousness and health across the life course. Review of General Psychology. 2005; 9: 156–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Christensen AJ, Ehlers SL, Wiebe JS, et al. Patient personality and mortality: A 4-year prospective examination of chronic renal insufficiency. Health Psychol. 2002; 21: 315–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Friedman HS, Tucker JS, Tomlinson-Keasey C, et al. Does childhood personality predict longevity? J Pers Soc Psychol. 1993; 65: 176–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Martin LR, Friedman HS. Comparing personality scales across time: An illustrative study of validity and consistency in life-span archival data. J Pers. 2000; 68: 85–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Terracciano A, Lockenhoff CE, Zonderman AB, Ferrucci L, Costa PT Jr. Personality predictors of longevity: Activity, emotional stability, and conscientiousness. Psychosom Med. 2008; 70: 621–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Weiss A, Costa PT Jr. Domain and facet personality predictors of all-cause mortality among Medicare patients aged 65 to 100. Psychosom Med. 2005; 67: 724–733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wilson RS, Mendes de Leon CF, Bienias JL, Evans DA, Bennett DA. Personality and mortality in old age. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2004; 59: P110–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kern ML, Friedman HS, Martin LR, Reynolds CA, Luong G. Conscientiousness, career success, and longevity: A lifespan analysis. Ann Behav Med. [this issue].Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tyssen R, Dolatowski FC, Rovik JO, et al. Personality traits and types predict medical school stress: A six-year longitudinal and nationwide study. Med Educ. 2007; 41: 781–787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Williams PG, Moroz TL. Personality vulnerability to stress-related sleep disruption: Pathways to adverse mental and physical health outcomes. Personality Individ Differ. 2009; 46: 598–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rothbart MK, Ahadi SA, Evans DE. Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000; 78: 122–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rothbart MK, Sheese BE. Temperament and emotion regulation. In: Gross JJ, ed. Handbook of Emotion Regulation. New York: The Guilford Press; 2007; 331–350.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kochanska G, Murray K, Jacques TY, Koenig AL, Vandegeest KA. Inhibitory control in young children and its role in emerging internalization. Child Dev. 1996; 67: 490–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Robins RW, Fraley RC, Roberts BW, Trzesniewksi KH. A longitudinal study of personality change in young adulthood. J Pers. 2001; 64: 618–640.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Stuss DT. Biological and psychological development of executive functions. Brain Cogn. 1992; 20: 8–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Welsh MC, Pennington BF, Groisser DB. A normative-developmental study of executive function: A window on prefrontal function in children. Dev Neuropsychol. 1991; 7: 131–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nigg JT, John OP, Blaskey LG, et al. Big five dimensions and ADHD symptoms: Links between personality traits and clinical symptoms. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2002; 83: 451–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Duchek JM, Balota DA, Storandt M, Larsen R. The power of personality in discriminating between healthy aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2007; 62: P353–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gerardi-Caulton G. Sensitivity to spatial conflict and the development of self-regulation in children 24–36 months of age. Dev Sci. 2000; 3: 397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rothbart MK, Ellis LK, Rueda MR, Posner MI. Developing mechanisms of temperamental effortful control. J Pers. 2003; 71: 1113–1143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rothbart MK, Ahadi SA, Evans DA. Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000; 78: 122–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Keilp JG, Sackeim HA, Mann JJ. Correlates of trait impulsiveness in performance measures and neuropsychological tests. Psychiatry Res. 2005; 135: 191–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pietrzak RH, Maruff P, Mayes LC, et al. An examination of the construct validity and factor structure of the Groton Maze Learning Test, a new measure of spatial working memory, learning efficiency, and error monitoring. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2008; 23: 433–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Logan GD, Schacher RJ, Tannock R. Impulsivity and inhibitory control. Psychological Science. 1997, 8.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Cheung AM, Mitsis EM, Halperin JM. The relationship of behavioral inhibition to executive functions in young adults. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2004; 26: 393–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Reynolds B, Ortengren A, Richards JB, de Wit H. Dimensions of impulsive behaviors: Personality and behavioral measures. Personality Individ Differ. 2006; 40: 305–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Flory JD, Harvey PD, Mitropoulou V, et al. Dispositional impulsivity in normal and abnormal samples. J Psychiatr Res. 2006; 40: 438–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gray JA. The Neuropsychology of Anxiety. New York: Oxford University Press; 1982.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gray JA. The Psychology of Fear and Stress. 2nd ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 1987.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bolger N, Schilling EA. Personality and the problems of everyday life: The role of neuroticism in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. J Pers. 1991; 59: 355–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bolger N, Zuckerman A. A framework for studying personality in the stress process. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1995; 69: 890–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gunthert KC, Cohen LH, Armeli S. The role of neuroticism in daily stress and coping. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1999; 77: 1087–1100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Suls J, Green P, Hillis S. Emotional reactivity to everyday problems, affective inertia, and neuroticism. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 1998; 24: 127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Vollrath M. Personality and hassles among university students: A three-year longitudinal study. Eur J Pers. 2000; 14: 199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hemenover SH. Self-reported processing bias and naturally occurring mood: Mediators between personality and stress appraisals. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2001; 27: 387–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Penley JA, Tomaka J. Associations among the Big Five, emotional responses, and coping with acute stress. Personality Individ Differ. 2002; 32: 1215–1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Suls J, Martin R. The daily life of the garden-variety neurotic: Reactivity, stressor exposure, mood spillover, and maladaptive coping. J Pers. 2005; 73: 1485–1509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Suls J, Bunde J. Anger, anxiety, and depression as risk factors for cardiovascular disease: The problems and implications of overlapping affective dispositions. Psychol Bull. 2005; 131: 260–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Evans DE, Rothbart MK. Developing a model for adult temperament. J Res Pers. 2007; 41: 868–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Haas BW, Omura K, Constable RT, Canli T. Emotional conflict and neuroticism: Personality-dependent activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate. Behav Neurosci. 2007; 121: 249–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Luu P, Collins P, Tucker DM. Mood, personality, and self-monitoring: Negative affect and emotionality in relation to frontal lobe mechanisms of error monitoring. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2000; 129: 43–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Carver CS, White TL. Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1994; 67: 319–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Amodio DM, Master SL, Yee CM, Taylor SE. Neurocognitive components of the behavioral inhibition and activation systems: Implications for theories of self-regulation. Psychophysiology. 2008; 45: 11–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Botvinick MM, Braver TS, Barch DM, Carter CS, Cohen JD. Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychol Rev. 2001; 108: 624–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Yeung N, Botvinick MM, Cohen JD. The neural basis of error detection: Conflict monitoring and the error-related negativity. Psychol Rev. 2004; 111: 931–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rothbart MK, Ellis LK, Posner MI. Temperament and self-regulation. In: Baumeister RF, Vohs KD, eds. Handbook of Self Regulation. New York: Guilford Press; 2004; 357–370.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Damasio AR, Tranel D, Damasio H. Individuals with sociopathic behavior caused by frontal damage fail to respond autonomically to social stimuli. Behav Brain Res. 1990; 41: 81–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Denburg NL, Weller KL, Yamada DM, et al. Poor decision-making among older adults is related to elevated levels of neuroticism. Ann Behav Med. 2009; 37(2).Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wilson RS, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Proneness to psychological distress is associated with risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology. 2003; 61: 1479–1485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Rothbart MK, Ahadi SA, Hershey KL, Fisher P. Investigations of temperament at three to seven years: The Children’s Behavior Questionnaire. Child Dev. 2001; 72: 1394–1408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Siegman AW, Kubzansky LD, Kawachi I, et al. A prospective study of dominance and coronary heart disease in the Normative Aging Study. Am J Cardiol. 2000; 86: 145–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Siegman AW, Townsend ST, Civelek AC, Blumenthal RS. Antagonistic behavior, dominance, hostility, and coronary heart disease. Psychosom Med. 2000; 62: 248–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Cherpitel CJ. Substance use, injury, and risk-taking dispositions in the general population. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1999; 23: 121–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Dawe S, Gullo MJ, Loxton NJ. Reward drive and rash impulsiveness as dimensions of impulsivity: Implications for substance misuse. Addict Behav. 2004; 29: 1389–1405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Moskowitz JT, Epel ES, Acree M. Positive affect uniquely predicts lower risk of mortality in people with diabetes. Health Psychol. 2008; 27: S73–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Steptoe A, O’Donnell K, Marmot M, Wardle J. Positive affect and psychosocial processes related to health. Br J Psychol. 2008; 99: 211–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Gray JA. The psychological basis of introversion–extraversion. Behavior Research and Therapy. 1970; 26: 67–70.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Blair C, Peters R, Granger D. Physiological and neuropsychological correlates of approach/withdrawal tendencies in preschool: Further examination of the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system scales for young children. Dev Psychobiol. 2004; 45: 113–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kochanska G, Aksan N, Penney SJ, Doobay AF. Early positive emotionality as a heterogeneous trait: Implications for children’s self-regulation. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2007; 93: 1054–1066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lieberman MD, Rosenthal R. Why introverts can’t always tell who likes them: Multitasking and nonverbal decoding. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2001; 80: 294–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Gray JR, Burgess GC, Schaefer A, et al. Affective personality differences in neural processing efficiency confirmed using fMRI. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2005; 5: 182–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Haas BW, Omura K, Amin Z, Constable RT, Canli T. Functional connectivity with the anterior cingulate is associated with extraversion during the emotional Stroop task. Soc Neurosci. 2006; 1: 16–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Abe JA. The predictive validity of the Five-Factor Model of personality with preschool age children: A nine year follow-up study. J Res Pers. 2005; 39: 423–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Swanson J, Oosterlaan J, Murias M, et al. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children with a 7-repeat allele of the dopamine receptor D4 gene have extreme behavior but normal performance on critical neuropsychological tests of attention. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000; 97: 4754–4759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Depue RA, Collins PF. Neurobiology of the structure of personality: Dopamine, facilitation of incentive motivation, and extraversion. Behav Brain Sci. 1999; 22: 491–517. discussion 518-469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    O’Jile JR, Ryan LM, Parks-Levy J, Betz B, Gouvier WD. Sensation seeking and risk behaviors in young adults with and without a history of head injury. Appl Neuropsychol. 2004; 11: 107–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ironson GH, O’Cleirigh C, Weiss A, Schneiderman N, Costa PT Jr. Personality and HIV disease progression: Role of NEO-PI-R openness, extraversion, and profiles of engagement. Psychosom Med. 2008; 70: 245–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Jonassaint CR, Boyle SH, Williams RB, et al. Facets of openness predict mortality in patients with cardiac disease. Psychosom Med. 2007; 69: 319–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Lee-Baggley D, Preece M, Delongis A. Coping with interpersonal stress: Role of big five traits. J Pers. 2005; 73: 1141–1180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hughes SL, Case HS, Stuempfle KJ, Evans DS. Personality profiles of Iditasport ultra-marathon participants. J Appl Sport Psychol. 2003; 15: 256–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    DeYoung CG, Peterson JB, Higgins DM. Sources of openness/intellect: Cognitive and neuropsychological correlates of the fifth factor of personality. J Pers. 2005; 73: 825–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Tangney JP, Baumeister RF, Boone AL. High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. J Pers. 2004; 72: 271–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Stegge H, Terwogt MM. Awareness and regulation of emotion in typical and atypical development. In: Gross JJ, ed. Handbook of Emotion Regulation. New York: The Guilford Press; 2007; 269–286.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Baer RA, Smith GT, Allen KB. Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills. Assessment. 2004; 11: 191–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Wise TN, Mann LS, Shay L. Alexithymia and the five-factor model of personality. Compr Psychiatry. 1992; 33: 147–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Gurrera RJ, O’Donnell BF, Nestor PG, Gainski J, McCarley RW. The P3 auditory event-related brain potential indexes major personality traits. Biol Psychiatry. 2001; 49: 922–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Polich J, Kok A. Cognitive and biological determinants of P300: An integrative review. Biol Psychol. 1995; 41: 103–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ford JM, Pfefferbaum A, Tinklenberg JR, Kopell BS. Effects of perceptual and cognitive difficulty on P3 and RT in young and old adults. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1982; 54: 311–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Clifford JS, Boufal MM, Kurtz JE. Personality traits and critical thinking skills in college students: Empirical tests of a two-factor theory. Assessment. 2004; 11: 169–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Ennis RH. A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In: Baron JB, Sternberg RJ, eds. Teaching Thinking Skills: Theory and Practice. New York: Freeman; 1987; 9–26.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Farsides T, Woodfield R. Individual differences and undergraduate academic success: The roles of personality, intelligence, and application. Personality Individ Differ. 2003; 34: 1225–1243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    McCrae RR. Creativity, divergent thinking, and openness to experience. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1987; 52: 1258–1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    McElroy T, Dowd K. Susceptibility to anchoring effects: How openness-to-experience influences responses to anchoring cues. Judgment and Decision Making. 2007; 2: 48–53.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Smith TW, Uchino BN, Berg CA, et al. Associations of self-reports versus spouse ratings of negative affectivity, dominance, and affiliation with coronary artery disease: Where should we look and who should we ask when studying personality and health? Health Psychol. 2008; 27: 676–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Tobin RM, Graziano WG, Vanman EJ, Tassinary LG. Personality, emotional experience, and efforts to control emotions. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000; 79: 656–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Ahadi SA, Rothbart MK. Temperament, development, and the Big 5. In: Halverson CF, Kohnstamm GA, Martin RP, eds. The Developing Structure of Temperament and Personality from Infancy to Adulthood. Hillsdale, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum; 1994; 189–207.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Cumberland-Li A, Eisenberg N, Reiser M. Relations of young children’s agreeableness and resiliency to effortful control and impulsivity. Soc Dev. 2004; 13: 193–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    von Hippel W. Aging, executive functioning, and social control. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2007; 16: 240–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    von Hippel W, Dunlop SM. Aging, inhibition, and social inappropriateness. Psychol Aging. 2005; 20: 519–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Pushkar D, Basevitz P, Arbuckle T, et al. Social behavior and off-target verbosity in elderly people. Psychol Aging. 2000; 15: 361–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    von Hippel W, Gonsalkorale K. “That is bloody revolting!”: Inhibitory control of thoughts better left unsaid. Psychol Sci. 2005; 16: 497–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Davidson RJ. Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: Brain mechanisms and plasticity. Am Psychol. 2000; 55: 1196–1214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Hariri AR, Bookheimer SY, Mazziotta JC. Modulating emotional responses: Effects of a neocortical network on the limbic system. NeuroReport. 2000; 11: 43–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Olsson CA, Byrnes GB, Anney RJ, et al. COMT Val(158) Met and 5HTTLPR functional loci interact to predict persistence of anxiety across adolescence: Results from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study. Genes Brain Behav. 2007; 6: 647–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Auerbach JG, Faroy M, Ebstein R, Kahana M, Levine J. The association of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) with temperament in 12-month-old infants. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2001; 42: 777–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Hawkley LC, Cacioppo JT. Stress and the aging immune system. Brain Behav Immun. 2004; 18: 114–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Jang KL, Wolf H, Larstone R. What is the role of personality in psychopathology? A view from behavior genetics. In: Krueger RF, Tackett JL, eds. Personality and Psychopathology. New York, NY: The Guilford Press; 2006; 153–173.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York, NY: Springer; 1984.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Ader R. Psychoneuroimmunology. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2001; 10: 94–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Segerstrom SC, Miller GE. Psychological stress and the human immune system: A meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychol Bull. 2004; 130: 601–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Critchley HD. Neural mechanisms of autonomic, affective, and cognitive integration. J Comp Neurol. 2005; 493: 154–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Waldstein SR, Katzel LI. Stress-induced blood pressure reactivity and cognitive function. Neurology. 2005; 64: 1746–1749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lane RD, McRae K, Reiman EM, et al. Neural correlates of heart rate variability during emotion. Neuroimage. 2009; 44: 213–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Lane RD, Reiman EM, Ahern GL, Thayer JF. Activity in medial prefrontal cortex correlates with vagal component of heart rate variability during emotion. Brain Cogn. 2001; 47: 97–100.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Hansen AL, Johnsen BH, Thayer JF. Vagal influence on working memory and attention. Int J Psychophysiol. 2003; 48: 263–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Thayer JF, Hansen AL, Saus-Rose E, Johnsen BH. Heart rate variability, prefrontal neural function, and cognitive performance: The Neurovisceral integration perspective on self-regulation, adaptation, and health. Ann Behav Med. 2009; 37(2).Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Thayer JF, Lane RD. The role of vagal function in the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Biol Psychol. 2007; 74: 224–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Thayer JF, Lane RD. Claude Bernard and the heart-brain connection: Further elaboration of a model of neurovisceral integration. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2009; 33: 81–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Butler EA, Wilhelm FH, Gross JJ. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, emotion, and emotion regulation during social interaction. Psychophysiology. 2006; 43: 612–622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Johnsen BH, Hansen AL, Murison R, Thayer JF. Heart rate variability is inversely related to cortisol reactivity during cognitive stress. Psychosom Med. 2002; 84: 148.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Brosschot JF, Gerin W, Thayer JF. The perseverative cognition hypothesis: A review of worry, prolonged stress-related physiological activation, and health. J Psychosom Res. 2006; 60: 113–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Schwartz AR, Gerin W, Davidson KW, et al. Toward a causal model of cardiovascular responses to stress and the development of cardiovascular disease. Psychosom Med. 2003; 65: 22–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Stewart JC, Janicki DL, Kamarck TW. Cardiovascular reactivity to and recovery from psychological challenge as predictors of 3-year change in blood pressure. Health Psychol. 2006; 25: 111–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Moseley JV, Linden W. Predicting blood pressure and heart rate change with cardiovascular reactivity and recovery: Results from 3-year and 10-year follow up. Psychosom Med. 2006; 68: 833–843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Pieper S, Brosschot JF. Prolonged stress-related cardiovascular activation: Is there any? Ann Behav Med. 2005; 30: 91–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Davis RN, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Cognitive inflexibility among ruminators and nonruminators. Psychol Med. 2000; 24: 699–711.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Whitmer AJ, Banich MT. Inhibition versus switching deficits in different forms of rumination. Psychol Sci. 2007; 18: 546–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Watkins E, Brown RG. Rumination and executive function in depression: An experimental study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002; 72: 400–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Cacioppo JT, Berntson GG. The brain, homeostasis, and health: Balancing demands of the internal and external milieu. In: Friedman HS, Silver RC, eds. Foundations of Health Psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2006; 73–91.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    McEwen BS. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. N Engl J Med. 1998; 338: 171–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Lange T, Perras B, Fehm HL, Born J. Sleep enhances the human antibody response to hepatitis A vaccination. Psychosom Med. 2003; 65: 831–835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Dew MA, Hoch CC, Buysse DJ, et al. Healthy older adults’ sleep predicts all-cause mortality at 4 to 19 years of follow-up. Psychosom Med. 2003; 65: 63–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Cohen S, Doyle WJ, Alper CM, Janicki-Deverts D, Turner RB. Sleep habits and susceptibility to the common cold. Arch Intern Med. 2009; 169: 62–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    King CR, Knutson KL, Rathouz PJ, et al. Short sleep duration and incident coronary artery calcification. JAMA. 2008; 300: 2859–2866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Bastien CH, St-Jean G, Morin CM, Turcotte I, Carrier J. Chronic psychophysiological insomnia: Hyperarousal and/or inhibition deficits? An ERPs investigation. Sleep. 2008; 31: 887–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Nilsson JP, Soderstrom M, Karlsson AU, et al. Less effective executive functioning after one night’s sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res. 2005; 14: 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Van Dongen HP, Maislin G, Mullington JM, Dinges DF. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: Dose–response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation. Sleep. 2003; 26: 117–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Mizoguchi K, Ishige A, Takeda S, Aburada M, Tabira T. Endogenous glucocorticoids are essential for maintaining prefrontal cortical cognitive function. J Neurosci. 2004; 24: 5492–5499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Stevenson CW, Marsden CA, Mason R. Early life stress causes FG-7142-induced corticolimbic dysfunction in adulthood. Brain Res. 2008; 1193: 43–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Lupien SJ, Fiocco A, Wan N, et al. Stress hormones and human memory function across the lifespan. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005; 30: 225–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Lee BK, Glass TA, McAtee MJ, et al. Associations of salivary cortisol with cognitive function in the Baltimore memory study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007; 64: 810–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Liston C, McEwen BS, Casey BJ. Psychosocial stress reversibly disrupts prefrontal processing and attentional control. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009; 106: 912–917.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Boyce WT, Ellis BJ. Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary-developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Dev Psychopathol. 2005; 17: 271–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ellis BJ, Boyce WT. Biological sensitivity to context. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2008; 17: 183–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Meaney MJ, Diorio J, Francis D, et al. Early environmental regulation of forebrain glucocorticoid receptor gene expression: Implications for adrenocortical responses to stress. Dev Neurosci. 1996; 18: 49–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Williams PG, Thayer JF. Executive functioning and health: Introduction to the special series. Ann Behav Med. 2009; 37(2).Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Kabat-Zinn J. Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain and Illness. New York: Delacorte; 1990.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Davidson RJ, Kabat-Zinn J, Schumacher J, Rosenkranz M, Muller D, Santorelli SF, et al. Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosom Med. 2003; 65: 564–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Colcombe S, Kramer AF. Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: A meta-analytic study. Psychol Sci. 2003; 14: 125–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

Personalised recommendations