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Energy-Ecological Efficiency and TTW Emissions of the DFSIE Fuelled with Biofuels

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This paper describes the possibility of replacing the single-fuel spark-ignition engines (SFSIE) fuelled with gasoline by the dual-fuel spark-ignition engines (DFSIE) fuelled with bioethanol and biogas. GASEQ software was used to estimate the combustion exhaust gases of the bioethanol, biogas and gasoline with 27% ethanol and 20% ethanol in order to calculate the energy-ecological efficiency of the DFSIE and the SFSIE. The tank-to-wheel (TTW) emissions were calculated to analyse the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted per kilometre and compared to the tailpipe emissions standards defined by the United States and European Union. The results showed that the energy-ecological efficiency found for the DFSIE fuelled with 50% bioethanol and 50% biogas was higher than that found for the SFSIE fuelled with gasoline. However, the TTW emissions of the DFSIE in category 2.0 presented the lowest emission values when compared to the other categories. As can be seen from the results obtained in the present study, the use of the DFSIE fuelled with bioethanol and biogas reveals the effect on the energy-ecological efficiency and the TTW emissions. The findings of this study can be used as a guide for public policy makers in order to assist their planning of sustainable urban mobility programs.

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Bottom dead centre


Brake thermal efficiency


Computational fluid dynamics


Dual-fuel spark-ignition engine


Exhaust gas recirculation


European Union


Gasoline direct injection


Homogeneous charge compression ignition


Hydrogen direct ignition




Internal combustion engine vehicle


Low heating value, in kJ/kg


Liquefied petroleum gas


Natural gas vehicle


Single-fuel spark-ignition engine


Top dead centre


Tank-to-wheel emission, in gCO2/km


United States


Wide-open throttle


1.4-Dichlorobenzene substance to calculate the human toxicity


Air/fuel ratio

BTEdual-fuel :

Brake thermal efficiency of dual-fuel mode

c, K, n:

Constants (Eq. 4)

C2H5 :

Ethyl radical

C8H18 :


CH4 :


CO2 :

Carbon dioxide

CO2 eq :

Equivalent carbon dioxide

Ɛdual-fuel :

Energy-ecologic efficiency of the dual-fuel mode

f species :

Emission factor of each species resulting from the combustion of the mixture

f 1.4-DCB eq :

1.4-Dichlorobenzene emission factor, in kg 1.4-DCBeq/kgfuel

Fcbioethanol :

Fuel consumption of the vehicle fuelled with bioethanol, in km/l

Fcbiogas :

Fuel consumption of the vehicle fuelled with biogas, in km/l

f CO2 eq :

Equivalent carbon dioxide emission factor, in kgCO2 eq/kgfuel

f CO2 fixation :

Carbon dioxide fixation emission factor, in kgCO2/km

f eq :

Equivalent emission factor, in kg/kgfuel



\( {\dot{m}}_{bioethanol} \) :

Bioethanol mass flow, in kg/s

\( {\dot{m}}_{biogas} \) :

Biogas mass flow, in kg/s

N2 :



Dinitrogen monoxide

NOx :

Nitrogen oxide

O2 :





Vehicle power, in kW


Particulate material

SOx :

Sulphur oxide


Proportion of biogas in the mixture of the dual-fuel mode


Energy-ecologic efficiency


Brake thermal efficiency


Pollution indicator, in kgeq pollutant/MJfuel


Pollution indicator that contributes to glogal warming, in kgeq pollutant/MJfuel


Pollution indicator that contributes to human toxicity, in kg1.4-DCB eq/kgfuel


Fuel density, in kg/m3




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The authors are very grateful to the financial support provided by the Iberoamerican Program of Science and Technology for Development (CYTED) with the project Smart Cities Totally Comprehensive, Efficient and Sustainable (CITIES) [518RT0557]; the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) with the project, title in Portuguese “Misturas Biogás-Biodiesel utilizadas em sistemas de injeção dual-fuel dos Motores de Combustão Interna a Compressão” [406789/2018-5]; and was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001.

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Correspondence to Ronney Arismel Mancebo Boloy.

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Soares, L.O., de Moraes, D.R. & Boloy, R.A.M. Energy-Ecological Efficiency and TTW Emissions of the DFSIE Fuelled with Biofuels. Bioenerg. Res. 14, 623–633 (2021).

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