Most of the citizens in developing countries use charcoal for domestic cooking and small-scale enterprises because of its high calorific value, less smoke, and easy to transport. However, a lot of charcoal dust is generated from charcoal trading activities. The dust is left as heaps of solid wastes in urban areas and sometimes thrown in water streams, thus being a nuisance to both humans and the environment. This study aimed to develop and characterize charcoal dust briquettes bonded with wild cassava Manihot glaziovii and also use of bioethanol to enhance briquette ignition. The percentages of binder to charcoal dust were varied from 5 to 30%. Proximate analysis, density, ignition time, burning rate, burning time, and calorific value were determined. The density of the produced briquettes ranged from 0.67 ± 0 to 0.83 ± 0.1 g/cm3; percentage of moisture content varied from 3.4 ± 0.2 to 4.2 ± 0.2; ash content varied from 19.6 ± 0.6 to 21.5 ± 0; percentage volatile matter ranged from 19.8 ± 0.3 to 24.3 ± 0.4; and percentage fixed carbon ranged from 51.9 ± 1.1 to 55.3 ± 0.2. The calorific value ranged from 17.7 ± 0.7 to 19.7 ± 0.3 MJ/kg, ignition time 139 to 163 s, and burning rate 0.3 to 0.7 g/min while water boiling time varied from 14 to 19 min and burning time from 85 to 116 min. Ignition test revealed that bioethanol ratio of 15 mL to 56 g of the briquette showed the best briquette ignition characteristics. It was further found that the amount of binder used influenced the combustion properties of the briquettes. This study also showed that charcoal dust could be compacted to briquettes using Manihot glaziovii as a binder. The overall performance of the briquettes showed that 5% binder gave the best results in terms of combustion characteristics.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Yaman S, Şahan M, Haykiri-Acma H, Şeşen K, Küçükbayrak S (2000) Production of fuel briquettes from olive refuse and paper mill waste. Fuel Process Technol 68(1):23–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3820(00)00111-9
Carnaje NP, Talagon RB, Peralta JP, Shah K, Paz-Ferreiro J (2018) Development and characterisation of charcoal briquettes from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)-molasses blend. PLoS One 13(11):e0207135. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207135
Njenga M, Karanja N, Munster C, Iiyama M, Neufeldt H, Kithinji J, Jamnadass R (2013) Charcoal production and strategies to enhance its sustainability in Kenya. Dev Pract 23(3):359–371. https://doi.org/10.1080/09614524.2013.780529
Dam J (2017) The charcoal transition: greening the charcoal value chain to mitigate climate change and improve local livelihoods. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323557187_. Accessed date: 25 December 2018
Lokina R, Mapunda G (2017) Willingness to switch from charcoal to alternative energy sources in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Tanzania Econ Rev 5(1-2) http://www.journals.udsm.ac.tz/index.php/ter/article/view/1048/974. Accessed Date: 13 December 2018
Njenga M, Karanja N, Karlsson H, Jamnadass R, Iiyama M, Kithinji J, Sundberg C (2014) Additional cooking fuel supply and reduced global warming potential from recycling charcoal dust into charcoal briquette in Kenya. J Clean Prod 81:81–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.06.002 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652614005861. Accessed date: 13 December 2018
Ferguson H (2012) Briquette businesses in Uganda: the potential for briquettes enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. G.V.E.P. International, London http://wastetowealth.livingearth.org.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2013/10/briquette_businesses_in_uganda.pdf. Accessed Date: 14 June 2017
Chaney JO (2010) Combustion characteristics of biomass briquettes, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Nottingham http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/11732/1/. Accessed Date: 20 July 2017
Mary N (2013) Implications of charcoal briquette produced by local communities on livelihoods and environment in Nairobi Kenya. Int J Renew Energy Dev 2(1):19–29
Okia D, Ahmed M, Ndiema C (2017) Combustion and emission characteristics of water hyacinth based composite briquettes. Sci Res J 5(11) http://www.scirj.org/papers-1117/scirj-P1117456.pdf. Accessed date: 12 May 2018
Ugwu K, Agbo K (2013) Evaluation of binders in the production of briquettes from empty fruit bunches of Elaeis guineensis. Int J Renew Sustain Energy 2(4):176–179
Bhattacharya S, Sett S, Shrestha RM (1989) State of the art for biomass densification. Energy Sources 11(3):161–182. https://doi.org/10.1080/00908318908908952
Mwampamba TH, Owen M, Pigaht M (2013) Opportunities, challenges and way forward for the charcoal briquette industry in sub-Saharan Africa. Energy Sustain Dev 17(2):158–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2012.10.006
Sotannde O, Oluyege A, Abah G (2010) Physical and combustion properties of briquettes from sawdust of Azadirachta indica. J For Res 21(1):63–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-010-0010-6
Oladeji J (2013) Investigation into viability of briquettes from different agricultural residues as alternatives to wood and kerosene fuels. New York Sci J 6(8):78–83 http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork/ny0608/013_19533ny0608_78_83.pdf. Accessed date: 10 August 2018
Borowski G, Stępniewski W, Wójcik-Oliveira K (2017) Effect of starch binder on charcoal briquette properties. Int Agrophys 31(4):571–574. https://doi.org/10.1515/intag-2016-0077
Oyelaran OA (2014) Effects of binding ratios on some densification characteristics of groundnut shell briquettes. Iran J Energy Environ 5(2). https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.ijee.2014.05.02.08
Demirbas A, Ahmad W, Alamoudi R, Sheikh M (2016) Sustainable charcoal production from biomass. Energy source Part A: Rec, Util, Environ Eff 38(13):1882–1889. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2014.1002955
Pradhan P, Mahajani SM, Arora A (2018) Production and utilization of fuel pellets from biomass: A review. Fuel Process Technol 181:215–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2018.09.021
Muazu RI, Stegemann JA (2015) Effects of operating variables on durability of fuel briquettes from rice husks and corn cobs. Fuel Process Technol 133:137–145
Mambo W (2016) Optimal compaction pressure, particle size and binder ratio for quality briquettes made from maize cobs. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, MSc Dissertation
Lubwama M, Yiga VA (2018) Characteristics of briquettes developed from rice and coffee husks for domestic cooking applications in Uganda. Renew Energy 118:43–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.11.003
Olugbade T, Ojo O, Mohammed T (2019) Influence of binders on combustion properties of biomass briquettes: a recent review. Bioenergy Res 12:1–19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12155-019-09973-w
Arewa ME, Daniel IC, Kuye A (2016) Characterisation and comparison of rice husk briquettes with cassava peels and cassava starch as binders. Biofuels 7(6):671–675. https://doi.org/10.1080/17597269.2016.1187541
Moshi AP, Crespo CF, Badshah M, Hosea KM, Mshandete AM, Elisante E, Mattiasson B (2014) Characterisation and evaluation of a novel feedstock, Manihot glaziovii, Muell. Arg, for production of bioenergy carriers: Bioethanol and biogas. Bioresour Technol 172:58–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.12.082
Sebayang A, Hassan M, Ong H, Dharma S, Silitonga A, Kusumo F, Mahlia T, Bahar A (2017) Optimization of reducing sugar production from Manihot glaziovii starch using response surface methodology. Energies 10(1):35. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010035 https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/10/1/35/htm. Accessed date: 11 April 2019
Avedikian, SZ, Instant starting briquettes. 1984, Google Patents.
Hairong Y, Yunzhi P, Kuisheng W, Yanping L, Xiaoyu Z, Shuqing M, Xiujin L (2010) Ignition and emission characteristics of ignition-assisting agents for densified corn stover briquette fuel. Chin J Chem Eng 18(4):687–694. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1004-9541(10)60276-5
Sotannde OA, Oluyege A, Abah G (2010) Physical and combustion properties of charcoal briquettes from neem wood residues. Int Agrophys 24(2):189–194 https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Olufemi_Sotannde/publication/285581531. Accessed date: 29 August 2017
Hu Q, Shao J, Yang H, Yao D, Wang X, Chen H (2015) Effects of binders on the properties of bio-char pellets. Appl Energy 157:508–516
Yank A, Ngadi M, Kok R (2016) Physical properties of rice husk and bran briquettes under low pressure densification for rural applications. Biomass Bioenergy 84:22–30
Onchieku JM, Chikamai BN, Rao MS (2012) Optimum parameters for the formulation of charcoal briquettes using bagasse and clay as binder. Eur J Sustain Dev:477–492
Olorunnisola A (2007) Production of fuel briquettes from waste paper and coconut husk admixtures. . International Commission of Agricultural Engineering E- Journal 9. https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/10628/EE%2006%20006%20Olorunnisola%20final%2020Feb2007.pdf?sequence = 1&isAllowed = y. Accessed date: 6 June 2017
Chirchir DK, Nyaanga DM, and Githeko JM (2013) Effect of binder types and amount on physical and combustion characteristics. Int J Eng Sci Technol 2. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jason_Githeko/publication/235306508. Accessed date: 4 December 2018
Davies RM, Davies OA, Mohammed US (2013) Combustion characteristics of traditional energy sources and water hyacinth briquettes. Int J Sci Res Environ Sci 1(7):144. https://doi.org/10.12983/ijsres-2013-p144-151
Grover P and Mishra S (1996) Biomass briquetting: technology and practices. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Onchieku J, Chikamai B, Rao M (2012) Optimum parameters for the formulation of charcoal briquettes using bagasse and clay as binder. Eur J Sustain Dev 1(3):477–492. https://doi.org/10.14207/ejsd.2012.v1i3p477
Abdulkareem S, Hakeem BA, Ahmed II, Ajiboye TK, Adebisi JA, Yahaya T (2018) Combustion characteristics of bio-degradable biomass briquettes. J Eng Sci Technol 13(9):2779–2791 http://jestec.taylors.edu.my/Vol%2013%20issue%209%20September%202018/13_9_10.pdf. Accessed date: 18 December 2018
Mani S, Tabil LG, Sokhansanj S (2006) Effects of compressive force, particle size and moisture content on mechanical properties of biomass pellets from grasses. Biomass Bioenergy 30:648–654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2005.01.004
Sen R, Wiwatpanyaporn S, Annachhatre AP (2016) Influence of binders on physical properties of fuel briquettes produced from cassava rhizome waste. Int J Environ Waste Manag 17(2):158–175. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEWM.2016.076750
Ikelle II and Joseph MN (2014) The study of briquettes produced with bitumen, CaSO4 and starch as binders. Am J Eng Res: 2320-0847.
Roy MM, Corscadden KW (2012) An experimental study of combustion and emissions of biomass briquettes in a domestic wood stove. Appl Energy 99:206–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.05.003
Njenga M, Karanja N, Prain G, Malii J, Munyao P, Gathuru K, Mwasi B (2009) Community-based energy briquette production from urban organic waste at Kahawa Soweto informal settlement, Nairobi. International Potato Center Lima, Peru. Number of
Veeresh S, Narayana J (2013) Sustainable utilization of agro-waste for high calorific energy briquettes. Energy source Part A: Rec, Util, Environ Eff 35(14):1375–1384. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2010.525594
Akowuah JO, Kemausuor F, Mitchual SJ (2012) Physico-chemical characteristics and market potential of sawdust charcoal briquette. Int J Energy Environ Eng 3(1):20–26. https://doi.org/10.1186/2251-6832-3-20
Zanella K, Gonçalvesb JL, Tarantoa OP (2016) Charcoal briquette production using orange bagasse and corn starch. Chem Eng 49:313–318. https://doi.org/10.3303/CET1649053
Onuegbu T, Ogbu I, Ilochi N, Okafor I, Obumselu O, Ekpunobi U (2010) Enhancing the efficiency of coal briquette in rural Nigeria using Pennisetum purpureum. Adv Nat Appl Sci 4(3):299–305 https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ikechukwu_Ogbu2/publication/289268620. Accessed date: 9 January 2019
Chin OC, Siddiqui KM (2000) Characteristics of some biomass briquettes prepared under modest die pressures. Biomass Bioenergy 18:223–228. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(99)00084-7
The authors thank the Water Infrastructure and Sustainable Energy Futures center (WISE-Futures) for supporting this study
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Gesase, L.E., King’ondu, C.K. & Jande, Y.A.C. Manihot glaziovii-Bonded and Bioethanol-Infused Charcoal Dust Briquettes: A New Route of Addressing Sustainability, Ignition, and Food Security Issues in Briquette Production. Bioenerg. Res. 13, 378–386 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12155-019-10076-9
- Charcoal dust
- Manihot glaziovii