Sugarcane Straw Removal: Implications to Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Demand in Brazil

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Abstract

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) straw is a promising feedstock for bioelectricity and cellulosic ethanol in Brazil, but some straw is also needed to sustain nutrient cycling and crop yields. A literature review and two field studies were conducted to quantify above-ground macronutrient accumulation by sugarcane. Five straw removal scenarios using different amounts of biomass and nutrient composition data of top (green) and bottom (dry) leaves were constructed to estimate fertilizer requirements associated with straw removal in central southern Brazil. Calculated straw removal for five scenarios (S1 to S5) was 3.5, 7, 3, 6, and 12 Mg ha−1, respectively. By removing 12 Mg ha−1 of straw (S5), the potential N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S removal was 69, 7, 92, 45, 16, and 14 kg ha−1, respectively. It represents a nutrient (NPK) replacement cost of US$ 90.00 ha−1 or US$ 7.60 per Mg of removed straw. The scenario analysis shows that less-impacting strategies are those that maintain top leaves in the field and harvesting only bottom leaves (S1 and S2), whereas total removal (S5) could double NPK-fertilizer consumption in sugarcane fields by 2050. Our findings provide stakeholder guidelines for improved straw management, establish an economic value for accumulated plant nutrients, and promote both socio-economic and environmental benefits of more sustainable bioenergy production in Brazil.

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  • 07 February 2020

    The original version of this article was published with a wrong heading by mistake. The correct heading is Original Paper.

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Funding

The Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES) and Raízen Energia S.A funded this project (Project #14.2.0773.1). MRC, LLV, and PSP received the research grant (#2018/09845-7) and scholarships (#2016/08214-8; 2017/04186-2) from the São Paulo Research Foundation–FAPESP. AGBS received his post-doctoral fellowship from the Fundação de Estudos Agrários “Luiz de Queiroz” (Project #67555). RO received a research productivity fellowship from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), grant #308007/2016-6. This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-Brasil (CAPES)-Finance Code 001”. IPL received his PhD scholarships and post-doc fellowship from the CAPES (#88881.134605/2016-01) and CNPq (#141459/2015-8, #201207/2017-6; and #155753/2018-5).

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Cherubin, M.R., Lisboa, I.P., Silva, A.G.B. et al. Sugarcane Straw Removal: Implications to Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Demand in Brazil. Bioenerg. Res. 12, 888–900 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12155-019-10021-w

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Keywords

  • Crop residue
  • Nutrient cycling
  • Fertilizer consumption
  • Bioenergy production