Choice Isn’t Simple. Reply to Pickard
- 173 Downloads
Pickard’s contribution reminds me that conceptualizing choice is no simple matter. Pickard sees choice as entirely voluntary, while I argue that choice is only partially voluntary. Choices are based on appraisals of situations, which fluctuate due to external circumstances and internal states such as emotion and mood. Habit itself competes with volition, and all these parameters vary with development. Psychological factors such as delay discounting and especially one's belief in one's agency are critical for volitional choice as well.
KeywordsChoice only partly voluntary Psychological biases Appraisal and circumstances Mood and emotion Predispositions Role of self-efficacy Neurobiology of disconnection Resurgence of volition No truce with disease model Responsibility and change
- 1.Pickard, Hanna. 2017. Responsibility without blame for addiction. Neuroethics 10. doi: 10.1007/s12152-016-9295-2.
- 2.Lewis, Marc D. 2017. Addiction and the Brain: Development, not Disease. Neuroethics 10. doi: 10.1007/s12152-016-9293-4.
- 3.Heather, Nick. 2017. Q: Is addiction a brain disease or a moral failing? A: Neither. Neuroethics 10. doi: 10.1007/s12152-016-9289-0.
- 6.Lewis, Marc D. 2015. The biology of desire. Why addiction is not a disease. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
- 9.Ainslie, George. 2017. Intertemporal bargaining in habit. Neuroethics 10. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00063.