Squaring the Circle: Addiction, Disease and Learning
- 1.3k Downloads
The history of ideas about addiction often comes down to a history of debates over the use and meaning of language (Levine et al. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 15:493–506, 1978). Nowhere is this more clear than in the interminable “Is addiction a ‘disease’?” debate. In Marc Lewis’ excellent Biology of Desire and in his paper that centers this issue, there is far more agreement between his work and mine than there is disagreement on the “disease” question. Here, however, I make a case for greater compatibility between the “disease” view and learning models of addiction than Lewis does, because I think the nuance is worth exploring. Indeed, if addiction science and ethics paid more attention to nuance in general, the whole field would be far better off.
KeywordsAddiction Disease model of addiction Learning disorders Developmental disorders Neurodiversity Substance use disorders Brain disease model of addiction Addiction theory
- 1.Peele, S. and Brodsky. (1975). A. Love and Addiction. Taplinger Publishing.Google Scholar
- 2.National Institute on Drug Abuse. The Science of Drug Abuse and Addiction: The Basics. Accessed 9/29/16 at https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/media-guide/science-drug-abuse-addiction-basics.
- 4.Center for the Study of Addiction and Substance Abuse. (2011). Adolescent Substance Use: America’s #1 Public Health Problem.Google Scholar
- 6.Cécile Denis, Mélina Fatséas, Virginie Beltran, Claire Bonnet, Stéphane Picard, Isabelle Combourieu, Jean-Pierre Daulouède, and Marc Auriacombe. (2012). Validity of the Self-Reported Drug Use Section of the Addiction Severity Index and Associated Factors Used under Naturalistic Conditions. Substance Use & Misuse 47:(4).Google Scholar
- 8.Maremmani, A.G., F. Rugani, S. Bacciardi, L. Rovai, M. Pacini, L. Dell’Osso, and I. Maremmani. 2014. Does dual diagnosis affect violence and moderate/superficial self-harm in heroin addiction at treatment entry? Journal of Addiction Medicine 8(2): 116–122. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Pescosolido, B.A., J.K. Martin, J.S. Long, T.R. Medina, J.C. Phelan, and B.G. Link. 2010. “A disease like any other”? A decade of change in public reactions to schizophrenia, depression, and alcohol dependence. The American Journal of Psychiatry 167(11): 1321–1330. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09121743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.White, W., and W. Miller. 2007. The use of confrontation in addiction treatment: history, science and time for change. Counselor 8(4): 12–30.Google Scholar
- 13.Silberman, Steve. Our Neurodiverse World. Slate. 9/23/2105. Accessed 9/2916 at: http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2015/09/the_neurodiversity_movement_autism_is_a_minority_group_neurotribes_excerpt.html.
- 14.Compton, W.M., Y.F. Thomas, F.S. Stinson, and B.F. Grant. 2007. Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV drug abuse and dependence in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry 64(5): 566–576. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.64.5.566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Fletcher, A.M. 2013. Inside Rehab, 219. New York: Viking Penguin.Google Scholar
- 17.Levine, Harry G, “The Discovery of Addiction: Changing Conceptions of Habitual Drunkenness in America” Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 1978; 15: 493–506. See especially, appendix on definitions. See also: O’Brien CP, Volkow N, Li TK. “What’s in a Word? Addiction Versus Dependence in DSM-V.” American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(5), pp. 764–765.Google Scholar