, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 259–271 | Cite as

Information Processing Biases in the Brain: Implications for Decision-Making and Self-Governance

  • Anthony W. SaliEmail author
  • Brian A. Anderson
  • Susan M. Courtney
Original Paper


To make behavioral choices that are in line with our goals and our moral beliefs, we need to gather and consider information about our current situation. Most information present in our environment is not relevant to the choices we need or would want to make and thus could interfere with our ability to behave in ways that reflect our underlying values. Certain sources of information could even lead us to make choices we later regret, and thus it would be beneficial to be able to ignore that information. Our ability to exert successful self-governance depends on our ability to attend to sources of information that we deem important to our decision-making processes. We generally assume that, at any moment, we have the ability to choose what we pay attention to. However, recent research indicates that what we pay attention to is influenced by our prior experiences, including reward history and past successes and failures, even when we are not aware of this history. Even momentary distractions can cause us to miss or discount information that should have a greater influence on our decisions given our values. Such biases in attention thus raise questions about the degree to which the choices that we make may be poorly informed and not truly reflect our ability to otherwise exert self-governance.


Attention Cognitive control Working memory Learning Self-governance 


Compliance with Ethical Standards


This work was supported by U.S. National Institutes of Health grant R01-DA013165 and National Endowment for the Humanities grant RZ-50892-08 to S.M.C.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Cognitive NeuroscienceDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychological and Brain SciencesJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeuroscienceJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain ImagingKennedy Krieger InstituteBaltimoreUSA

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